Carlin-type gold deposits: a compliation

Владелец инбокса: kaptar.j

Preface to SEG Compilation on Carlin-type Gold Deposits

John Muntean

Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

University of Nevada Reno

 

Since the discovery of the original Carlin gold deposit in 1961, approximately 200 million ounces of gold in Carlin-type deposits have been mined or identified in northern Nevada, making the United States one of the world’s largest gold producers for the past several decades. Despite their importance, Carlin-type deposits remain enigmatic.   Controversy over their origin mainly stems from the very fine grained character of the ore and gold. Carlin-type gold deposits are largely hydrothermal replacement bodies with visually subtle alteration dominated by decarbonatization and silicification of carbonate-bearing host rocks. Gold occurs in solid solution or as submicron particles in very fine grained disseminated arsenian pyrite or marcasite. To date, over 90% of the gold mined from what most geologists would call Carlin-type deposits has come from northern Nevada, and debate exists whether similar-looking deposits elsewhere share a comparable origin or whether the deposits in Nevada represent a unique occurrence.

Прикрепленные файлы
Категория: Полезные ископаемые Метки: Carlin type gold,Gold,Золото,Полезные ископаемые,
Автор(ы):Kurt C.Friehauf, Spencer R.Titley, Stacie L.Gibbins
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2005 г., 10 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Porphyry-style mineralisation in the Ertsberg diorite, Gunung Bijih (Ertsberg/Grasberg) district, West Papua, Indonesia

Newly-recognised porphyry-style mineralisation within the Ertsberg intrusion displays significant differences from porphyry mineralisation at the Grasberg porphyry Cu-Au deposit. Stockwork mineralisation in the Ertsberg occurs near the giant East Ertsberg Skarn System, close to the northern margin of the intrusion. Stockwork mineralisation in the diorite is spatially associated with 5-15 m wide, E-striking, dykes of porphyritic hornblende monzonite that cut equigranular Ertsberg diorite. The porphyry dykes strike parallel to major district structures and occur where those structures project into the Ertsberg intrusion. Hornblende abundance greater than biotite, the much greater content of sphene, a paucity of broken phenocrysts, and the aplitic groundmass distinguish the porphyry dykes in the Ertsberg Stockwork Zone from the finer-grained groundmass Kali dykes of the Grasberg deposit.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиErtsberg diorite, Ertsberg district, Gold, Grasberg district, Gunung Bijih district, Porphyry-style mineralisation, West Papua, Золото
Автор(ы):Robin E.Harmer
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2002 г., 10 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Mineralisation of the Phalaborwa complex and the carbonatite connection in iron oxide-Cu-Au-U-REE deposits

The family of Proterozoic iron-oxide copper-gold deposits have as a unifying characteristic mineralisation which is dominated by titanium-poor iron oxides in which the total rare earth elements (REE) are enriched. The REE are typically LREE enriched and are concentrated in apatite and/or discrete REE phases. Carbonatites typically contain low-Ti02 magnetite and apatite as minor phases and are characterised by elevated total REE with extreme enrichment of LREE over HREE. Copper and gold are not, however, commonly associated with carbonatites.

МеткиCarbonatite, Copper, Gold, Iron oxide, Phalaborwa, REE, Uranium
Автор(ы):David I.Groves, Noreen M.Vielreicher, Richard M.Vielreicher
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2002 г., 9 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
The Phalaborwa (Palabora) deposit and its potential connections to iron-oxide copper-gold depositsof Olympic Dam type

Phalaborwa is the second largest copper mine in the world and the largest in Africa. The orebody is hosted by the Loolekop pipe within the Phalaborwa Complex, and is also mined for magnetite, apatite, vermiculite with a large array of by-products including gold, silver, phosphate, rare earth elements and uranium. The Phalaborwa Complex intruded Archaean basement at the edge of the Kaapvaal Craton in early Proterozoic times (2060±lMa) and consists of concentrically zoned, multiple intrusions which decrease in age from the margin to the core. The outer parts are predominantly clinopyroxenites, which have been variably metasomatised. Younger pegmatoidal pyroxenites intruded at three centres, including Loolekop, where foskcritc and a banded carbonatite were also emplaced, followed by a transgressive carbonatite that intruded as the last magmatic phase along fracture and shear zones. Economic copper mineralisation is hosted predominantly within the transgressive carbonatite as disseminated grains and veinlets of chalcopyrite, with lesser bornite and cubanite. Magnetite is a primary igneous phase in all rocks and is paragenetically earlier than the copper sulphides. The quality and quantity of magnetite is zoned and its distribution is antithetic to that of copper. Ore fluids are high temperature, highly saline, CO,-rich, magmatic-water dominated brines. The Complex and the mineralisation are interpreted to be products of the interaction of multiple pyroxenitic to carbonatitic magmas and their volatiles, which were ultimately derived from decompression melting of metasomatised mantle during extension at a transition from thick Archaean to thinner post-Archaean lithosphere. The orebody at Loolekop has many features including its age, giant size, pipe-like form, low ore grade, minor and major element associations and ore-fluid properties that are consistent with it being a proximal endmember of the widely recognised iron-oxide copper-gold deposit group. As such it helps explain characteristics such as the pipe-like brecciation as well as the common siting of these deposits at craton edges or other lithospheric boundaries.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Автор(ы):Bruce Nisbet, Craig Williams, John Cooke, Michael Richards
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2002 г., 12 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Exploration for iron oxide copper gold deposits in Zambia and Sweden: comparison with the Australian experience

The major Iron Oxide Copper-Gold (IOCG) deposits in Australia (Olympic Dam, Ernest Henry) are 'blind' deposits that were discovered under younger cover. Exploration for this style of mineralisation presents a new set of problems to the explorationist, and involves target definition applying criteria gleaned from work in known areas and extrapolating into new target areas.

Equinox applies a model for IOCG mineralisation principally derived from studies of known mineralisation in the Cloncurry region and the Stuart Shelf/Gawler Craton of South Australia. This model was initially applied in Australia, and was later extrapolated to Zambia in Central Africa and the Norrbotten region in Sweden.

 

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCopper, Gold, Iron oxide copper, Iron oxide gold deposits, Sweden, Zambia
Автор(ы):A.Hamid Mumin, Derek L.Mulligan, Kathryn L.Neale, Norman A.Duke, Robin E.Goad
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2002 г., 17 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Geology of the proterozoic iron oxide-hosted, Nico cobalt-gold-bismuth, and Sue-Dianne copper-silver deposits, southern great bear magmatic zone, northwest territories, Canada

The NICO cobalt-gold-bismuth and Sue-Dianne copper-silver deposits of the Mazenod Lake area, Northwest Territories, are currently being drill-delineated by Fortune Minerals Limited. They are the only known significant Canadian examples of the Proterozoic iron oxide-hosted polymetallic class, more commonly referred to as hydrothermal iron oxide copper-gold deposits. NICO and Sue-Dianne are located in the southern part of the Great Bear magmatic zone, the central tectonic subdivision of the Bear Structural Province. It is a post-collisional plutonic terrane with related continental volcanic rocks dating from 1867 Ma and culminating with the emplacement of A-type rapikivi granite plutons at approximately 1856 Ma. Iron oxide occurrences are widely distributed within the Great Bear magmatic zone, ranging from Salobo-type magnetite-rich schists and ironstones in receptive basement rocks to Kiruna-type magnetite-apatite-rich veins and Olympic Dam-type sulphidized magnetite-hematite breccias in overlying volcanic rocks. NICO is hosted in iron- and potassium-altered, brecciated basement sedimentary rocks at and beneath the volcanic unconformity, showing similarities to the Salobo-type. The host "black rock" amphibole-magnetite-biotite schists and ironstones are capped by potassium feldspar-magnetite "red rock" felsite. In contrast, Sue-Dianne shows the essential characteristics of Olympic Dam-type ores, with mineralization hosted within a well-zoned diatreme breccia complex crosscutting a rotated ash flow tuff succession above the unconformity. At both NICO and Sue-Dianne, ongoing detailed paragenetic studies demonstrate that early, reduced, high-temperature mineral assemblages are overprinted by late, oxidative, low-temperature assemblages. These together with stratigraphic relationships, indicate fluid mixing at shallow crustal levels was important in deposit formation. Proximity of the NICO and Sue-Dianne deposits to subvolcanic porphyries, rapakivi granite and various other phases of the Marian River Batholith, together with geochronology and mineralogy studies, suggest they are all genetically related. The occurrence of diverse iron oxide deposit types within the Great Bear magmatic zone, makes this region favourable for exploration and for the study of the Proterozoic iron oxide class as a whole.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиBismuth, Cobalt, Copper, Gold, NICO, Sue-Dianne
Автор(ы):Karin Requia, Lluis Fontbote
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2002 г., 12 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
The Salobo iron oxide copper-gold deposit, Carajas, northern Brazil

The Salobo iron oxide copper-gold deposit is located in the Carajas Mineral Province, northern Brazil. The copper-gold ore is hosted by the Archean Salobo-Pojuca Group, which is formed by a sequence of amphibolites, banded iron formations, metagraywackes and quartzites. These rocks were deposited in a trondhjemitic basement, where a continental rift basin, that has been further described as a pull apart basin, was developed. Principal ore assemblages are magnetite-bornite-chalcocite and magnetite-bornite-chalcopyrite, with magnetite dominant and variable amounts of copper sulphides. The iron oxide copper-gold ore shows elevated concentrations of Ag, U, Co, Mo, F and LREE. Differences in geochemistry and textures between magnetite of iron-rich rocks and magnetite of banded iron formation suggest a hydrothermal origin for the mineralization. Fluid inclusion data for quartz veins and apatite indicate the involvement of highly saline fluids in the deposit formation. Adominantly magmatic source of the sulphur is indicated by isotope ratios determined for chalcopyrite and bornite (834S between 0.2%o and 1.6%o). Petrographic evidence supported by preliminary geochronological data indicates that the mineralization post-dates the metamorphism. Hydrothermal alteration effects on host amphibolites have been also investigated. The studied amphibolites occur as lenses or layers close to the contact with the gneissic basement or included in metagraywackes of the Salobo-Pojuca Group. Trace element chemistry of these rocks indicates that they are subalkaline basalts with tholeiitic affinity. Based on the K.,0 content, three alteration groups have been defined and informally named "less altered", "medium altered" and "very altered" types. They characterize rocks affected by different degrees of alkali metasomatism, resulting in major compositional changes. "Less altered" rocks (<0.5 wt% K.,0) show minor chemical modifications compared to the inferred average compositions of unaltered precursors. "Medium altered" rocks (0.5-3.5 wt% K20) show alkali metasomatism expressed by incipient sodic alteration (up to 4.5 wt% Na20) and superposed potassic alteration. "Very altered" rocks are characterized by extensive potassic alteration, with K-feldspar and biotite formation and high K20 (>3.5 wt%) values. The spatial association of "very altered" rocks with the main ore zone suggests a relationship between alkali metasomatism and mineralization. Similarities in the the hydrothermal alteration pattern combined with the ore mineralogy and chemistry indicate that the Salobo deposit belongs to the class of iron oxide (Cu-U-Au-REE) deposits.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCarajas, Copper, Gold, Salobo
Автор(ы):Eduardo A.P.Vieira, Leonardo H.Souza
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2002 г., 12 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Salobo 3 Alpha deposit: geology and mineralisation

The Salobo 3 Alpha Deposit is found in the southeast of the Amazon Craton, north of the Serra dos Carajas, in the State of Para, Brazil. The deposit is contained in supracrustal rocks of Igarape Salobo Group of Archean age, represented by iron-rich schists, metagreywackes, amphibolites and quartzites. This sequence overlies the basement gneisses of the Xingu Complex composed of partially migmatized gneisses. The original stratigraphic relationships are masked by intense ductile-brittle shear zones responsible for the generation of allochthonous rocks. The deposit extends over an area of approximately 4000 metres along strike (NW), is 100 to 600 metres wide and has been recognised to depths of 750 metres below the surface. The estimated mineral resources are of the order of 789 Mt with 0,96% Cu and 0,52 g/t Au. Copper mineralization occurs as chalcocite and bomite, with subordinate quantities of chalcopyrite, together with variable proportions of molybdenite, cobaltite, covellite, gold and silver, lodged in schists with variable proportions of magnetite, amphibole, olivine, garnet, biotite, quartz and piagioclase. Brittle-ductile shear zone deformation has resulted in lenticular shaped ore shoots that characteristically show close associations between copper mineralization and magnetite contents. The host rocks were progressively metamorphosed to pyroxene hornfels facies, at equilibrium temperatures of 750°C, resulting from sinistral transcurrent transpressive shearing accompanied by oblique thrusting. A first hydrothermal event developed at temperatures between 650 to 550°C causing partial substitution of chalcopyrite by bornite and chalcocite, accompanied by intense K-metasomatism. This was followed by sinistral transcurrent transtensive shear zone formation, causing green schist facies metasomatism, characterized by intense chloritization and partial substitution of bornite by chalcocite. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the genesis of the deposit. Based on similarities in the ore mineralogy and the hydrothermal alteration pattern, this deposit could be ascribed to the large class of iron oxide copper-gold deposits.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCarajas, Copper, Gold, Salobo 3 Alpha
Автор(ы):Claudinei Gouveia de Oliveira, Edison Tazava
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2002 г., 10 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
The Igarape Bahia Au-Cu(-REE-U) deposit, Carajas mineral province, northern Brazil

The Igarape Bahia Au-Cu-(REE-U) deposit is located in the Carajas Mineral Province - Northern Brazil - and is hosted by an Archaean low-grade metamorphosed volcanosedimentary sequence characterized by metavolcanic rocks of the footwall and metavolcanoclastic/metasedimentary rocks of the hangwall. An intense hydrothermal alteration occurred in this sequence, promoting intense chloritization, Fe-metasomatism, Cu-sulphidation (chalcopyrite and bornite), carbonatization, silicification, tourmalinization and biotitization.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Автор(ы):Anselmo D.V.Soares, Celio F.Barreira, Marcos Giovanni S.Dos Santos, Petronila C.Ronze
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2002 г., 12 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Alemao copper-gold (U-REE) deposits, Carajas, Brazil

The Alemao copper-gold deposit is located within the Carajas Mineral Province of Northern Brazil and was discovered in 1996 by DOCEGEO using geophysical and geological techniques. Alemao is hosted by the Igarape Bahia Group, which comprises two lithological and stratigraphic domains: a lower metavolcanic unit composed of metavolcanic rocks and acid to intermediate volcanoclastics; and an upper clastic-chemical metasedimentary unit with volcanoclastic rocks. The Alemao ore body is covered by a 250 metres thick unconfonnable siliciclastic unit referred as the Aguas Claras Formation. The ore body, which is 500 metres in length and 50 to 200 metres wide, strikes NE-SW and dips steeply to the NW, being emplaced along the contact between the two stratigraphic domains of the Igarape Bahia Group. In the ore zone, the hydrothermal paragenesis is marked by ferric minerals (magnetite-hematite), sulphides (chalcopyrite, pyrite), chlorite, carbonate (siderite, calcite, ankerite) and biotite, with minor quartz, tourmaline, fluorite, apatite, uraninite, gold and silver. Sericite and albite are rare. The mineralisation is represented by hydrothermal breccias and "hydrothermalites" classified into two types: (1) the BMS type, composed of massive bands of magnetite and chalcopyrite and by polymitic breccias with a matrix comprising magnetite, chalcopyrite, siderite, chlorite, biotite and amphiboles; (2) the BCLS type breccia which comprises brecciated hydrothermalised volcanic rocks with chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, chlorite, siderite, ankerite, tourmaline and molybdenite in the matrix, as well as dissemination in the rock. The geochemical association of Fe-Cu-Au-U-REE in iron rich, heterolithic, hydrothermal breccias at the Alemao Cu-Au Deposit, as well as its possible association with an extensional tectonic setting, suggests a correlation with Olympic Dam type mineralization. The total estimated ore resources based on a krigging method is 170 Mt @ 1.5% Cu and 0.8g/tAu.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиAlemao deposit, Carajas, Copper, Gold
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