Выпуск 24
Автор(ы):Childs C., Nicol A., Walsh J.J.
Издание:Pergamon, 2002 г., 7 стр.
An alternative model for the growth of faults

Conventional growth models suggest that faults become larger due to systematic increases in both maximum displacement and length. We propose an alternative growth model where fault lengths are near-constant from an early stage and growth is achieved mainly by increase in cumulative displacement. The model reconciles the scaling properties of faults and earthquakes and predicts a progressive increase in fault displacement to length ratios as a fault system matures. This growth scheme is directly applicable to reactivated fault systems in which fault lengths were inherited from underlying structure and established rapidly; the model may also apply to some non-reactivated fault systems. Near-constant fault lengths during subsequent growth are attributed to retardation of lateral propagation by interaction between fault tips. The model is validated using kinematic constraints from growth strata, which are displaced by a system of reactivated normal faults in the Timor Sea, NW Australia.

ТематикаСтруктурная геология
МеткиEarthquakes, Fault displacement, Fault growth, Fault length, Землетрясения, Разрывные нарушения, Структурная геология
Издание 3
Автор(ы):Willis B., Willis R.
Издание:McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York - London, 1934 г., 544 стр.
Geologic structures

"Geologic Structures" presents the facts of the architecture of the earth and explains the action of the forces which have produced that structure. In this, the third edition, the statement of pertinent mechanical principles precedes description, and description of each type of structure, such as folds, faults, etc., precedes the analysis of the stresses and strains involved in the particular change of form.

ТематикаСтруктурная геология
Том 20, Выпуск 11
Автор(ы):Hippertt J.F., Hong F.D.
Издание:Elsevier, 1998 г., 14 стр.
Deformation mechanisms in the mylonite/ultramylonite transition

The deformation mechanisms and controls that operate in the mylonite/ultramylonite transition are interpreted from microstructural observation. The investigated mylonites and ultramylonites were derived from a granitic protolith which was deformed under greenschist facies conditions, and in the presence of fluid, in a regional-scale shear zone from northwest Argentina. Several deformation mechanisms were recognized to operate simultaneously in different domains of the microstructure at each particular stage of the microstructural evolution. This continuously mobile deformation partitioning, present throughout the microstructural evolution, ceases abruptly in the ultramylonite stage, where a stable-state microstructure is achieved. Domainal quartz c-axis fabrics indicate that quartz deforms by crystal-plastic processes at the initial and intermediate stages of deformation, but solution-transfer processes become predominant in the ultramylonite stage. Plagio-clase is progressively transformed into muscovite through retrograde softening reactions. K-feldspar is progressively transformed into fine-grade aggregates via cataclastic flow and incipient recrystallization. Mica deforms by kinking and basal slip, with progressive development of fine-grained, morphologically oriented aggregates. Plagioclase disappearance as well as the development of intrafolial microfolds characterize the transition between the mylonitic and ultramylonitic domains. Disruption of these microfolds is interpreted to represent the ultimate control on the localization of the ultramylonite bands, с 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

ТематикаРегиональная геология, Структурная геология
МеткиMylonite, Ultramylonite, Аргентина, Деформации, Механизм деформации в милонитах, Милониты, Структурная геология, Ультрамилониты
Автор(ы):Гумерова Н.В., Кныш С.К., Полиенко А.К.
Издание:Издательство Томского Политехнического Университета, Томск, 2009 г., 375 стр., УДК: 551.1/4
Основы структурной, исторической и региональной геологии. Учебное пособие

В учебном пособии приводятся общие сведения о геологических картах, формах залегания осадочных, магматических и метаморфических горных пород, складчатых и разрывных нарушений. Кратко охарактеризованы главные тектонические структуры литосферы. Изложены основы палеонтологии, важнейшие этапы геологической истории развития Земли. Дана характеристика геологического строения территории России.

Пособие предназначено для студентов специальности 130201 «Геофизические методы поисков и разведки полезных ископаемых», 130202 «Геофизические методы исследования скважин» и 130203 «Технология и техника разведки месторождений полезных ископаемых».

ТематикаИсторическая геология, Общая геология, Региональная геология
Редактор(ы):Буланже Ю.Д.
Издание:Наука, Москва, 1987 г., 184 стр., УДК: 551.24:622.831
Поля напряжений и деформаций в земной коре

Исследованы механизмы деформирования осадочного чехла при движениях блоков фундамента, соответственные поля напряжений и характеристики движений поверхности. Рассмотрена задача о деформировании однородного чехла в условиях продольного сдвига. Получено аналитическое решение пространственной задачи о равновесии вязкого слоя для случая произвольной ориентации разрыва, разделяющего блоки, и вектора смещения по нему. Рассмотрено применение полученных результатов для тектонофизической интерпретации современных движений поверхности коры. Исследованы различные аспекты взаимосвязи смещений по разломам с полем напряжений.

По натурным данным восстановлены поля напряжений для ряда участков коры. Отмечено изменение ориентации осей локальных напряжений около активных разломов и приуроченность месторождений ряда ископаемых к участкам коры, отличающимся нестабильностью вида напряженного состояния. Рассмотрены механизмы деформирования и отвечающие им поля напряжений Донецкого бассейна на различных этапах его развития. Рассмотрен структурно-геологический метод изучения напряжений и деформаций, основанный на выявлении парагенетических ассоциаций дизъюнктивных структур и другие вопросы.

Рассчитано на исследователей — геологов, геофизиков, тектонофизиков, сейсмоло-гов, специалистов по горному делу и инженерной геологии.

ТематикаСтруктурная геология
Автор(ы):Declan G De Paor
Издание:Elsevier, 1996 г., 545 стр., ISBN: 0-08-042430-9
Structural geology and personal computers

Some thirty years ago, structural geology underwent a revolution that fundamentally changed how we think about the deformation of rocks. Regional field observations and laboratory data were given profound new meaning in terms of the global model of lithospheric behavior called "Plate Tectonics". Today structural geologists are witnessing a second revolution and although it is of a very different, less fundamental, type it will clearly have a profound and lasting effect on our field. This new revolution has been fuelled by the widespread use of the personal computer which has become the principal tool of scientists worldwide for data storage or retrieval, teaching, communication with colleagues, number crunching, modeling, and preparation of publications.

Автор(ы):Иванчук Е.В.
Издание:Издательство Тамбовского государственного технического университета, Тамбов, 2007 г., 32 стр., УДК: 624.131.1
Построение геологических разрезов. Методические указания

Даны методические указания по построению геологических разрезов по данным буровых скважин и геологической карте. Приведены варианты заданий, рекомендуемая литература.

При проектировании инженерных сооружений необходимо прежде всего обосновать место строительной площадки. Для этого необходимо изучить геологическое строение, геоморфологию, гидрогеологические условия, природные геологические и инженерно-геологические процессы, свойства горных пород и прогноз их изменений при строительстве и эксплуатации сооружений. На основе инженерно-геологической съемки составляют инженерно-геологические карты и разрезы, на которых отображают возраст, состав и условия залегания горных пород, мощность пластов и гидрологические условия.Цель данной работы – научить студентов строить геологические разрезы по данным буровых скважин и далее дать общую инженерно-геологическую оценку изучаемой территории.В соответствии с индивидуальным заданием студенты должны построить по одному геологическому разрезу и дать его описание.Исходным материалом для построения разреза являются: геологическая карта с указанием сечений вариантов, номеров скважин и данных по этим скважинам. Геологические данные по скважинам приведены в приложении настоящих указаний. Карты с вариантом разреза выдает преподаватель. Геологический разрез выполняется на листе ватмана формата А-I карандашом или в графическом редакторе AutoCAD.

ТематикаСтруктурная геология
Редактор(ы):Newhouse W.H.
Издание:Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1942 г., 280 стр.
Ore deposit as related to structural features

Geologists seldom agree on the relative importance of the several structural features that have localized ore in a given mining district. Such differing views are characteristic of a science in that stage of its growth when sufficient facts have not yet accumulated to test and clarify hypothesis. In most other sciences a worker can bring under his observation the body of data necessary to form and check hypothesis adequately.

The geologist whose material—ore bearing districts—is widely spaced over the earth's crust has a more difficult task. He can study only a few ore bearing districts in detail during a lifetime.

The Committee believed that it could fill a unique need by bringing together facts of structural feature and ore occurrence. Geologists who have had sustained and intimate contact with the ore occurrence in a mine or district were solicited for summary accounts of structural features as related to ore occurrence. The response showed a widespread interest and one deep enough to stimulate production of these data by more than sixty contributors. The Committee is indebted to these men for their labors.                     

The emphasis has been on description, on fact, rather than on theory. However these facts, as is true in any science, are salted by interpretation. The descriptions and opinions given by the contributors are their own. No attempt was made to force a common formula of treatment or a harmony that does not exist. The differences in viewpoint and emphasis present are regarded as a sign of healthy growth. Although many types of structural features and ore deposits are represented, no claim is made for completeness, and no endeavor was made to secure a weighted average of types of relationship.

If this book serves in small part to aid and stimulate further efforts to correlate structural features and ore occurrence, it will have fulfilled its purpose.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые, Структурная геология
Издание 3
Автор(ы):Nevin C.M
Издание:John Wiley & Sons INC, New York, 1942 г., 320 стр.
Principles of structural geology

Structural geology may be defined as a study of the framework of the earth's crust and the causes that are distorting it. However, in its broader phases, structural geology deals with deformation of the entire earth and is not limited merely to the crust. Although we see only a thin rind and although information about the greater bulk of the earth, the unseen vast interior, must of necessity be based on indirect evidence— yet it is to deep-seated adjustments that many of the surface crumplings arc attributed. The central theme of structural geology, then, is the deformation of the earth, its causes and effects. Unerring interpretation of observed rock structures is the goal sought.

At the outset, any idea of immobility of the earth should be dismissed from our minds. The crust oscillates to the rise and fall of the tides. Continual shifting of enormous sedimentary loads through the agencies of erosion, transportation, and deposition is attended by both deep-seated and surface adjustments. The shape of the earth itself is largely a response to the rate of axial spinning; modify the speed of rotation, and a corresponding change in the earth's shape, with attendant deformation of the crust, would inevitably follow. In short, the earth is not inert but is ceaselessly changing, and complete rigidity has no place in structural geology.

Beginning students of geology soon realize that the earth's crust has failed many times and in many places. Mountains of folded rock have been pushed up thousands of feet; enormous areas of relatively undisturbed formations have been gently tilted; beds once forming below ocean level have been raised several miles above their place of origin. All these and a host of other examples present a clear picture of tremendous masses moved great distances. The total forces involved in these distortions must have been stupendous, and we arc prone to think that this is all of the distant past — surely no major deformation of the earth is going on today or we should be able to see and measure it.

Indeed, there seems to be a rather general assumption that the earth is now passing through a stage of relative quiet, resting, as it were, after widespread recent deformations. Thus, the present is considered by many to be a poor key with which to unlock the structural mysteries of the past. <...>

ТематикаСтруктурная геология
Автор(ы):Андрухович О.А., Туров А.В.
Редактор(ы):Орлов В.П.
Издание:Деловая полиграфия, Москва, 2014 г., 129 стр., УДК: 551.24
Геологическая карта и разрезы к ней

В методическом руководстве дана характеристика геологической карты и изложены сведения о ее содержании. Рассмотрены особенности построения геологического разреза в областях с различным типом залегания слоистых толщ, интрузивных комплексов, разрывных нарушений, приведены правила оформления геологических разрезов.

Отдельный раздел посвящен условиям соревнования «Геологический разрез» на Всероссийских геологических олимпиадах юных геологов. Изложены требования к построению геологических разрезов и критерии их оценки. Рассмотрены типичные ошибки в построении разрезов на соревнованиях.

Для школьников, изучающих геологию, руководителей детско-юношеских геологических организаций, а также студентов геологических специальностей.

ТематикаМетодика ГРР, Структурная геология
Источник:от Автора
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