Выпуск 97
Автор(ы):Andrew R.Campbell, David I.Norman, John A.Groff
Издание:Economic geology, 2002 г., 6 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
An evaluation of fluid inclusion microthermometric data for orpiment-realgar-calcite-barite-gold mineralization at the betze and carlin mines, Nevada

Carlin-type deposits contain gold in association with main-stage quartz-pyrite-kaolinite mineralization and late-stage orpiment-realgar-calcite-barite mineralization. Fluid characteristics for main-stage mineralization are well documented by fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on quartz. In contrast, fluid characteristics for late-stage mineralization are not well constrained because of large ranges in fluid inclusion microthermo-metric data. These ranges could represent real variations in fluids or be a result of the reequilibration of fluid inclusions.

Microthermometric analyses were conducted on fluid inclusions in samples of barite, calcite, realgar, and or-piment from the Betze and Carlin mines, Nevada. Petrographic studies of individual crystals and cleaved sections reveal that fluid inclusions in realgar and barite have negative crystal shapes, in contrast to elongate and rounded inclusions in orpiment and calcite. Point-count data document that one-phase liquid inclusions (type 1) are the dominant type in barite and realgar, relative to two-phase, vapor-poor inclusions (type 2) in calcite and orpiment. Type 2 inclusions in realgar and barite commonly reequilibrate (e.g., stretch) during analysis and exhibit ranges in homogenization temperatures (Th) of 100º to 250ºC and 110º to 300ºC, respectively. In contrast, type 2 inclusions in orpiment and calcite have Th of 108º to 182ºC, which could be repeated to within 1ºC. Based on these results, fluid inclusions in barite and realgar are most susceptible to reequilibration, with Th of ~100º to 110ºC most representative. Fluid salinities for orpiment and calcite are 1.7 to 5.4 wt percent NaCl equiv, relative to 1.1 to 2.9 wt percent NaCl equiv for barite and realgar. The lower Th and salinity for fluid inclusions in barite and realgar suggest fluid cooling and dilution, following the deposition of paragenetically earlier orpiment and calcite.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCarlin type gold, Gold, Nevada, Аурипигмент-реальгар-кальцит-барит-золотая минерализация, Золото
Выпуск 96
Автор(ы):Jean S. Cline, Tracy L.C.
Издание:Economic geology, 2001 г., 18 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Alteration associated with gold deposition at the getchell carlin-type gold deposit, North-Central Nevada

Wall-rock alteration at the Getchell underground deposit was examined to determine the effects of Au-bear-ing fluids on host lithologies and the relationship between K-bearing alteration minerals and Au deposition. The major, minor, and trace element geochemistry of highly altered and mineralized to unmineralized rocks from the Getchell deposit was quantified for more than 50 samples collected along 13 transects through calcareous siltstone and carbonaceous limestone and along one transect through a rhyodacite dike. Each transect in sedimentary rocks was collected along a single homogeneous bed that could be followed from high-grade ore to moderately altered rock or waste rock. Analyses were obtained for 39 elements, 10 oxides, and loss on ignition, using multiple techniques. Petrographic studies were integrated with geochemistry and X-ray diffraction and electron microbeam analyses to identify ore and alteration minerals and to correlate mineralogy with geochemical fluxes.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCarlin type gold, Gold, North-Central Nevada, Золото
Выпуск 93
Автор(ы):Charles J.Tapper, David P.Stenger, Dean R.Peltonen, Stephen E.Kesler
Издание:Economic geology, 1998 г., 15 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Deposition of gold in carlin-type deposits: the role of sulfidation and decarbonation at Twin Creeks, Nevada

We report here an investigation of the distribution of Au, As, Sb, Hg, carbonates, K-Al silicates, and pyrite in the Twin Creeks Carlin-type gold deposit. The main objective of the study was to determine the nature and degree of correlation among these variables and use them to identify the process(es) that deposited gold. The study focused on deposit-scale variations in these parameters and was based, in part, on data from two large geochemical databases that were prepared by mine staff.

Country rocks at Twin Creeks include Ordovician-age interlayered calcareous shales and mafic igneous rocks, the overlying Leviathan allochthon, and the Pennsylvanian-Permian Etchart Formation that was deposited unconformably over these rocks. Most gold values are found in calcareous shales in the Ordovician sequence and in limestones in the Etchart Formation, although not all layers contain the same amount of gold. Strongest gold mineralization is not adjacent to faults but its general form and distribution suggest that gold-bearing solutions gained access to favorable layers along the faults. In the Ordovician sequence, gold values are highest in shales that have undergone maximum dissolution of carbonate minerals. Petrographic study shows that some gold is associated with adularia, but deposit-scale comparisons do not show a consistent relation between K/Al ratios and gold values. The distribution of antimony is similar to that of gold, whereas mercury is more concentrated than gold, and arsenic is more widely dispersed than gold.

The relation between gold, iron, and sulfide sulfur values shows that mineralization is concentrated in rocks that have gained sulfur, but not iron, to form gold-bearing arsenian pyrite. Thus, these rocks have undergone sulfidation rather than pyritization. The iron that underwent sulfidation came largely from preore, diagenetic(P) ferroan dolomite and was released into solution by decarbonation, a common form of alteration associated with Carlin-type deposits. The results of this study suggest that wall-rock iron content and decarbonation processes which liberate this iron are the most important factors controlling formation of Carlin-type gold deposits. New deposits should be sought where stratigraphic units containing abundant ferroan dolomite are cut by favorable structures.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Автор(ы):Arthur S.Radtke, Bernard J.Scheiner, Brent P.Fabbi, Chris Heropoulos, Mel Essington
Издание:Economic geology, 1972 г., 4 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Data on major and minor elements in host rocks and ores, Carlin gold deposit, Nevada

The purpose of this communication is to summarize and make available a large amount of data on the content of major and minor elements in the host rocks and ores of the Carlin gold deposit and to show the changes in the abundance of these elements as a result of hydrothermal mineralization and subsequent oxidation. Other aspects of the study of minor elements in the Carlin deposit, including the correlation between elements in various types of ore and the influence of geologic features on spatial distribution, will be presented in a later paper. The Carlin gold deposit is located about 33 miles northwest of Elko, Nevada (Fig. 1).

The deposit is characterized by large disseminated replacement-type ore bodies in the upper beds of the Silurian Roberts Mountains Formation. Several of these ore bodies are currently exposed in the West, Main, and East Pit areas of the mine. Although detailed information on the depth of gold deposition and the geometry of individual ore bodies cannot be disclosed (by agreement with Newmont Mining Corporation), the host rocks have been hydro-thermally altered in some parts of the deposit to a depth of 800+ feet. Small amounts of gold are scattered throughout this depth, and larger amounts, concentrated in several zones, make up the ore bodies.

The host rocks for the ore bodies are dark- to medium-gray, thin-bedded, siliceous, argillaceous, dolomitic limestones. Mineralogically the rocks are made up of large and widely varying amounts of calcite, dolomite, illite, and quartz, plus minor kaolin, montmorillonite( ?), chlorite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, pyrite, zircon, barite, rutile, sphene, and carbonaceous materials.    Complete chemical analyses of the fresh carbonate rocks are given by Hausen (1967), Hausen and Kerr (1968), and Radtke and Scheiner (1970).

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Выпуск 59
Автор(ы):Eric Seedorff, Jean S. Cline, John L. Muntean, Marcus K.Johnston, Mark D.Barton, Michael W.Ressel
Издание:Economic geology, 2004 г., 9 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Controversies on the Origin of World-Class Gold Deposits, Part I: Carlin-type Gold Deposits in Nevada

This article and a future article in the SEG Newsletter will serve as previews to an SEG-sponsored forum to examine and discuss the origins of gold deposits in the Carlin and Witwatersrand camps. The forum will be held in Reno, Nevada, on May 14, 2005, in conjunction with Geological Society of Nevada’s Symposium 2005 – Window to the World. Both districts have been the focus of major controversies. In this article, three short papers discuss the origin of Carlin-type deposits in north-central Nevada. Over the last few decades, Carlin-type deposits have been seen as shallow hot spring deposits, distal products of porphyry copper deposits, and the uppermost parts of deep mesother-mal systems. The first paper, by Jean Cline, provides an introduction to the characteristics of Carlin-type deposits and a framework for discussions of their origin. The second paper, by Marcus Johnston and Michael Ressel, argues for a magmatic origin for the deposits, and specifically that plutons are the source of heat and probably fluids and metals. The third paper, by Eric Seedorff and Mark Barton, discusses amagmatic models for the origin of Carlin-type deposits, as well as pointing out shortcomings in magmatic models. These authors will give talks at the May 2005 forum, which will be followed by panel and open discussions with the aim of identifying what we need to know to better understand and explore for these deposits.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Выпуск 98
Автор(ы):Albert H. Hofstra, Constance J.Nutt
Издание:Economic geology, 2003 г., 17 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Alligator Ridge District, East-Central Nevada: Carlin-type gold mineralization at Shallow Depths

Carlin-type deposits in the Alligator Ridge mining district are present sporadically for 40 km along the north-striking Mooney Basin fault system but are restricted to a 250-m interval of Devonian to Mississippian strata. Their age is bracketed between silicified ca. 45 Ma sedimentary rocks and unaltered 36.5 to 34 Ma volcanic rocks. The silicification is linked to the deposits by its continuity with ore-grade silicification in Devonian-Mis-sissippian strata and by its similar δ18O values (~17‰) and trace element signature (As, Sb, Tl, Hg). Eocene reconstruction indicates that the deposits formed at depths of ≤300 to 800 m. In comparison to most Carlin-type gold deposits, they have lower Au/Ag, Au grades, and contained Au, more abundant jasperoid, and tex-tural evidence for deposition of an amorphous silica precursor in jasperoid. These differences most likely result from their shallow depth of formation.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиAlligator Ridge District, Carlin type gold, East-Central Nevada, Gold, Shallow Depths, Золото
Выпуск 98
Автор(ы):Dean G.Heitt, Robert G.Jackson, Tommy B.Thompson, W.Warren Dunbar
Издание:Economic geology, 2003 г., 29 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Geology and geochemistry of the Deep Star gold deposit, Carlin Trend, Nevada

Deep Star is a high-grade Carlin-type gold deposit located in the northern part of the Carlin trend. The deposit averages 34.0 g/t Au and by year end 2000 had produced 37.8 t (1,217,000 oz) gold with a remaining reserve of 16.0 t (513,698 oz) gold. The deposit is primarily hosted in brecciated calc-silicate rocks of the Devonian Popovich Formation, with a minor amount of gold in the Jurassic Goldstrike diorite. Intrusion of the syn- and postore Deep Star rhyolite constrains the age of the mineralization. The postore rhyolite is composi-tionally and mineralogically similar to the synore dike and yielded an average 40Ar/39Ar isochron age of 38.3 Ma. Eocene rhyolite dikes intruded active, dilatant north- to northeast-striking faults and/or fractures, providing an important age constraint on the local stress regime at Deep Star during mineralization. Essentially horizontal, west-northwest-directed Eocene extension (291°) is consistent with dextral-normal oblique slip observed on north-south-striking, east-dipping portions of the Gen-Post fault system and dilation and sinistral shear on dike-filled, northeast-striking structures. A right-stepping, releasing bend in the Deep Star fault at its intersection with northwest- and north-northwest-striking subsidiary structures created a deep-tapping dilatant conduit for gold-bearing hydrothermal fluids.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCarlin type gold, Deep Star gold deposit, Gold, Золото
Выпуск 98
Автор(ы):Albert H. Hofstra, Eric A.Lauha, Griffin G.L., Poul Emsbo, Richard W.Hutchinson
Издание:Economic geology, 2003 г., 37 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Origin of high-grade gold ore, source of ore fluid components, and genesis of the Meikle and Neighboring Carlin-type deposits, Northern Carlin Trend, Nevada

The Meikle mine exploits one of the world’s highest grade Carlin-type gold deposits with reserves of ca. 220 t gold at an average grade of 24.7 g/t. Locally, gold grades exceed 400 g/t. Several geologic events converged at Meikle to create these spectacular gold grades. Prior to mineralization, a Devonian hydrothermal system altered the Bootstrap limestone to Fe-rich dolomite. Subsequently the rocks were brecciated by faulting and Late Jurassic intrusive activity. The resulting permeability focused flow of late Eocene Carlin-type ore fluids and allowed them to react with the Fe-rich dolomite. Fluid inclusion data and mineral assemblages indicate that these fluids were hot (ca. 220°C),of moderate salinity (<6 wt % NaCl equiv), acidic, and H2S rich. Gold-rich pyrite formed by dissolution of dolomite and sulfidation of its contained Fe. Where dissolution and replacement were complete, ore-stage pyrite and other insoluble minerals were all that remained. Locally, these minerals accumulated as internal sediments in dissolution cavities to form ore with gold grades >400 g/t.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCarlin type gold, Gold, Meikle, Neighboring, Золото
Выпуск 9
Автор(ы):Keith Bettles
Издание:Economic geology, 2002 г., 24 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Exploration and geology, 1962 to 2002, at the Goldstrike Property, Carlin Trend, Nevada

The Goldstrike property, located in the Carlin Trend in Nevada, contains a diverse group of Carlin deposits, including some of the largest and highest grade examples known. The largest deposit, Betze-Post, has a gold endowment of approximately 1,250 metric tons (t) Au, and the Meikle deposit, which contains 220 t Au, has a grade of 24.7 g/t Au. Goldstrike is part of the larger Blue Star-Goldstrike subdistrict, which has an areal extent of 58.5 by 2 km and a total gold endowment of 1,970 t. The first discovery of gold at Goldstrike was in 1962. Subsequent exploration culminated in the discovery in 1986 of large high-grade orebodies beneath smaller, lower grade orebodies. Exploration over a 40-yr period has relied on the evolution in understanding of geology and ore controls, supported by the application of geochemical and geophysical exploration techniques.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Выпуск 96
Автор(ы):Jean S. Cline
Издание:Economic geology, 2001 г., 16 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Timing of gold and arsenic sulfide mineral deposition at the Getchell Carlin-type gold deposit, North-Central Nevada

Pregold mineralization at the Getchell Carlin-type gold deposit includes quartz and base metal vein mineralization associated with intrusion of a Cretaceous granodiorite stock. The veins contain minor pyrite and trace chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, and sphalerite. The pyrite is moderately coarse and, in thin section, has high relief, is well polished, and is fractured and locally cemented by the gold ore assemblage. White micas are associated with veins near the granodiorite intrusion. Gold was not observed or detected by fire assay analyses of samples or electron microprobe analyses of pyrites. Microprobe analyses show that pregold pyrites have near-stoichiometric compositions. Variable, low arsenic is present in pyrite in samples overprinted by gold mineralization. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses detected trace gold in the coarse, near-stoichiomet-ric pyrite in overprinted samples. The pregold vein assemblage was fractured and cemented by gold ore-stage mineralization

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCarlin type gold, Getchell gold deposit, Gold, Золото
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