Выпуск 95
Автор(ы):Cindy L.Williams, Jon. L.Powell, Tommy B.Thompson, W.W. Arren Dunbar
Издание:Economic geology, 2000 г., 14 стр.
Gold-bearing breccias of the Rain Mine, Carlin Trend, Nevada

The Rain mine includes two mined-out open pits that contained 36.4 t (1.17 Moz) gold, averaging 1.8 g/t gold, and underground reserves, including underground production, estimated at 4.9 t (157,000 oz) gold averaging 7.7 g/t. Rain orebodies are localized in a breccia complex within the hanging wall of the Rain fault and hosted within the Mississippian Webb Formation immediately overlying the contact with the Devonian Devils Gate Limestone.

The ore host includes four texturally and genetically distinct breccia types: (1) crackle breccia; (2) hy-drothermal breccia; (3) tuffisite with accretionary lapilli; and (4) collapse breccia. Crackle breccia forms a capping over multistage hydrothermal breccias that are cut by tabular- to pipe-shaped tuffisite dikes, with some containing accretionary lapilli. Pre- and synore hydrothermal breccias formed during at least three episodes of convective fluidization, followed by quartz-sulfide-barite cementation. High-grade gold was deposited as a late phase along the upper portion of the hydrothermal breccia mass and extended into the crackle breccia zone. Collapse breccias occur along the floor of the composite breccia mass and have irregular upper and lower contacts. The lower contact occurs on a dissolution boundary with the Devils Gate Limestone.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCarlin type gold, Gold, Gold-bearing breccias, Rain Mine, Золото
Выпуск 92
Автор(ы):Mark D.Barton, Robert P.Ilchik
Издание:Economic geology, 1996 г., 20 стр.
An amagmatic origin of Carlin-type gold deposits

Carlin-type deposits are major sources of gold, yet their origins are enigmatic. Suggested genetic models make connections to magmatism, regional metamorphism, or regional extension. Depositional mechanisms are uncertain as well. We propose on the basis of geologic, physical, and chemical reasoning, a genetic model in which meteoric fluids were circulated by heat released during crustal extension. These fluids interacted at depth with the sedimentary rock pile and scavenged gold. Upon upwelling, these fluids interacted with various lithologies and/or other fluids and produced the characteristic alteration and metal suites of these deposits. To test the viability of this amagmatic model, we have investigated certain physical and chemical constraints implicit to the model.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Выпуск 90
Автор(ы):Arthur W.Rose, Carl A.Kuehn
Издание:Economic geology, 1995 г., 20 стр.
Carlin gold deposits, Nevada: origin in a deep zone of mixing between normally pressured and overpressured fluids

Gold mineralization at Carlin is clearly younger than hydrocarbon maturation (pre-Cretaceous) and felsic dike intrusion (Cretaceous), and older than deep oxidation (late Tertiary). Within the episode of gold mineralization, the main gold ore (MGO) stage and late gold ore (LGO) stage are distinguished paragenetically, wi-th a variety of vein and mineralization types in each. MGO stage fluids contained 5 to 10 mole percent COa, appreciable H2S, and 3 ± 1 wt percent NaCl equiv. At least portions of MGO stage mineralization were characterized by two-phase boiling (COa exsolution) at 215° ± 30°C and 800 ± 400 bars. In contrast, LGO stage fluids were gas poor with salinities <1.5 wt percent NaCl equiv and record only nonboiling conditions. MGO stage fluids had 518Oh2o values of 5 to 9 per mil, whereas LGO stage fluids resembled unevolved meteoric water with 518Oh2o values < —3 per mil.

From the MGO stage to the LGO stage, calcite 5180 values shifted from near whole-rock values of 12 ± 3 per mil to around 0 ± 1 per mil as LGO stage fluids flooded the system. Jasperoids also record a large range (9-22%o) in 518Oh2o values. These data indicate the involvement of two very different fluids in ore deposition. Because MGO and LGO stage features are closely associated spatially with each other and with Au, As, Sb, Hg, and other ore elements, both fluids are believed to have both been present during most stages of ore deposition.

At pressures of 80 to 85 percent lithostatic, depths of 3.8 ± 1.9 km are required to accommodate the 800 ± 400 bars of pressure recorded in MGO stage fluid inclusions. Carlin, therefore, is not an epi-thermal or hot spring deposit. Carbon dioxide in gas-rich MGO stage fluids may have originated either directly from buried intrusions or their contact aureoles, or from low-grade regional metamorphism at depth. The water may have been originally meteoric, and Au may be magmatic or derived from leaching of deep metamorphic or sedimentary rocks. Ore deposition appears to have occurred in zones of throttling at a pressure seal between normally pressured and overpressured regimes, where fluids experienced a change from near-lithostatic to hydrostatic conditions. Such pressure seals are common in deep sedimentary basins and may be a key to highly localized gold deposition. Mixing of two fluids and interaction with host rocks along thin permeable bioclastic horizons are believed to have been the major factors in depositing ore.


ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Выпуск 87
Автор(ы):Kuehn C.A., Rose A.W.
Издание:Economic geology, 1991 г., 25 стр.
Geology and geochemistry of wall-rock alteration at the Carlin gold deposit, Nevada

The Carlin disseminated gold deposit occurs in an autochthonous sequence of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks exposed in a structural window in the Roberts Mountains thrust in north-central Nevada. The upper 175 m of the Silurian Roberts Mountains Formation hosts the majority of ore at Carlin and is characterized by laminated, fine-grained, calcareous and/or dolomitic argillaceous siltstone with local coarser grained siltstones and <0.25- to >50-cm-thick lenticular interbeds of sand- and granule-sized calcareous bioclastic debris or fossil hash. Detailed studies of drill core and exposures in the East pit of the Carlin mine show that alteration and mineralization are zoned away from crosscutting fault conduits and these more permeable bioclastic beds, indicating that these two features were major inflow zones for hydrothermal fluid.

In unoxidized rocks, unaltered calcareous siltstone (1) containing quartz, dolomite, calcite, illite, K feldspar, and pyrite is progressively converted to assemblages of (2) quartz + dolomite + calcite + illite + pyrite, (3) quartz + dolomite + illite-K mica + pyrite, (4) quartz + illite-K mica + pyrite, and (5) quartz + kaolinite-dickite + pyrite adjacent to inflow zones where jasperoids are developed. Gold most consistently enriches the zone of calcite and dolomite removal (3 and 4 above), though it occurs in all zones, locally in high concentrations. This zoned alteration was accomplished by a C02-rich acidic fluid. This acidic alteration enhanced the passage of fluids by extensive carbonate removal to form zones of higher permeability.

Oxidation is wholly a supergene effect related to deep weathering, because the oxidation is superimposed on both mineralized and altered rocks with only minor effect on the major element chemistry; it has produced low-temperature goethitic Fe oxides rather than higher temperature hematite and is not spatially related to Au distribution at the mine or on a district scale.

Because of extensive carbonate removal leading to local volume reduction through collapse and/or compaction, geochemical effects are examined using ratios to relatively immobile elements such as Al and Ti. Extensive depletion of Ca, Mg, and C02 and introduction of Si, Au, and S have occurred. Potassium is depleted in the conversion of illite to dickite-kaolin-ite in proximal silicified inflow zones, and Fe enriches some pyritized rock. Carbonate removal and silicification are two separate processes, both of which are spatially associated with mineralization. Mineralized decarbonated rocks and barren footwall rocks commonly are not silicified, and intensely silicified proximal alteration zones are generally low grade.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCarlin type gold, Gold, wall-rock alteration, Золото
Выпуск 75
Автор(ы):Arthur S.Radtke, Frank W.Dickson, Robert O.Rye
Издание:Economic geology, 1980 г., 32 стр.
Geology and stable isotope studies of the Carlin gold deposit, Nevada

The Carlin gold deposit, largest of the epithermal disseminated replacement-type gold deposits discovered to date in the United States, formed as a result of hydrothermal processes associated with a shallow-seated late Tertiary igneous event. The orebodies formed by the replacement of carbonate minerals, principally calcite, in thin-bedded argillaceous arenaceous dolomitic beds favorable for mineralization within the upper 245+ m of the Roberts Mountains Formation. Early hydrothermal fluids dissolved calcite and deposited quartz. Fluids during the main hydrothermal stage introduced Si, Al, K, Ba, Fe, S, and organic materials, plus Au, As, Sb, Hg, and Tl; quartz and pyrite were deposited, potassium clays formed, and more calcite was dissolved. Sulfides and sulfosalts containing As, Sb, Hg, and Tl, and base metal sulfides of Pb, Zn, and Cu probably formed later in the paragenesis.

The main stage of ore deposition was terminated with the deposition of barite veins and the onset of boiling. The fluids lost H20, C02, H2S, and other components, leading to the production of H2S04 in the upper levels of the deposit and to subsequent intense acid leaching and oxidation of rocks and ore near the surface. Within this zone, calcite and large amounts of dolomite were removed, sulfides and organic compounds oxidized, kaolinite and anhydrite formed, and silica was added. After the hydrothermal event, the upper part of the deposit underwent weak oxidation by cooler ground water.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Выпуск 106
Автор(ы):John L. Muntean, Paul Taufen
Издание:Economic geology, 2011 г., 25 стр.
Geochemical exploration for gold through transported alluvial cover in Nevada: examples from the Cortez Mine


Geochemical orientation surveys were completed over covered Carlin-type gold deposits in the Cortez mine area with the expressed aim of identifying and evaluating exploration methods to discover Au ore under transported alluvial cover in Nevada. Orientation tests were designed to assess the utility of geochemical applications at various scales of exploration, both drill targets at the deposit scale and “footprints” associated with deposits at the district scale.

Detailed surveys were completed over the covered Gap deposit, located adjacent to the giant Pipeline deposit. Both Carlin-type gold mineralization and earlier, spatially associated, base metal skarn mineralization at Gap were located by soils, soil gas, and vegetation. Loam soils at 6- to 12-cm depth provided a consistent and uniformly available sample medium. Gold ore under 10 m of cover in the northern portion of the Gap deposit was readily detected by analysis of Au by fire assay and ultra trace aqua regia methods in the -80 mesh fraction of these loam soils. Arsenic anomalies occur over the northern end and over the main ore zone at Gap, where there is 25 to 50 m of alluvial cover. Zinc concentrations in soil show the most coherent spatial relationship with underlying Au ore. Tests of MMI-B and Enzyme Leach selective leaches did not result in significant enhancement of the anomalies relative to aqua regia. CO2 and O2 in soil gas indicate faults and underlying mineralized carbonates at Gap, where weathering reactions likely generated CO2 from acid reaction with carbonate. Elevated Au and As in mixed sagebrush and shadscale occur over most ore zones, with the highest Au concentrations over the main ore zone rather than the shallowly buried northern zone. Like soils, elevated Zn in vegetation shows the most coherent spatial relationship with underlying ore.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCarlin type gold, Cortez Mine, Gold, Золото
Выпуск 105
Автор(ы):Annick Chouinard, Carolina Michelin de Almeida, Charles Weakly, Gema Ribeiro Olivo, Glenn Poirier
Издание:Economic geology, 2010 г., 34 стр.
Mineral paragenesis, alteration, and geochemistry of the two types of gold ore and the host rocks from the carlin-type deposits in the southern part of the Goldstrike Property, Northern Nevada: implications for sources of ore-forming elements, ore genesis

This study was undertaken to characterize the mineral paragenesis and metal zoning at the property scale, evaluate the potential sources of ore-related metals, quantify the relationship between intensity of alteration and gold grade, and propose a comprehensive genetic model for the Carlin-type Au deposits at the southern part of the Goldstrike property, Nevada.

Mineralogy, textural relationships, whole-rock composition, and spatial distribution of the studied samples revealed two types of gold ore: Ore I and II. The former, which is hosted by the Roberts Mountains and Rodeo Creek Formations, and the Wispy, Planar, and Upper Mud units of the Popovich Formation, is the most abundant and widespread in the property. Ore I is characterized by intense hydrothermal alteration (e.g., carbonate dissolution, silicification, and precipitation of pyrite) and high amounts of trace elements (e.g., Ag, As, Au, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, S, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, and Zn). On the other hand, Ore II, which is hosted in the Wispy, Planar, and Soft Sediment Deformation units of the Popovich Formation, is mainly confined to the central-north-northwest portion of the Screamer deposit and is weakly altered with low concentration of trace elements. Both Ores I and II contain similar average concentrations of Au in whole rock (14 and 19 g/t Au, respectively) and in pyrite (290 and 540 ppm, respectively); however, auriferous pyrite from Ore I has higher trace element (As, Ag, Cu, Hg, Ni, Sb, Se, and Tl)/Au ratios than Ore II.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Выпуск 104
Автор(ы):Bin Xia, Christoph A.Heinrich, Ruizhong Hu, Thomas Pettke, Wenchao Su, Xingchun Zhang
Издание:Economic geology, 2009 г., 22 стр.
Sediment-hosted gold deposits in Guizhou, China: products of wall-rock sulfidation by deep crustal fluids

Sediment-hosted gold deposits in Guizhou, China, are hosted in late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks along the southwest margin of the Precambrian Yangtze craton. They have characteristics similar to Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada and are notably enriched in As, Sb, Hg, and Tl. The Shuiyindong and Yata deposits consist of disseminated, strata-bound sulfides in Permian bioclastic limestone and fault-controlled mineralization in Middle Triassic calcareous clastic rocks, respectively. Mineralization in both deposits consists of barren milky quartz veins, disseminated gold-bearing arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite, stibnite, realgar, and orpiment. The barren milky quartz veins occur in the ore-controlling structures with an envelope of gold mineralization in the host rock consisting of disseminated gold-bearing arsenian pyrite and arsenopyrite and replacement-style quartz veinlets. Later drusy quartz, stibnite, realgar, and orpiment fill fractures and vugs on the periphery of gold mineralization. Petrography, microthermometry, laser Raman spectroscopy, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of fluid inclusions are used to characterize the chemical evolution of ore fluids at Shuiyindong and Yata.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
МеткиCarlin type gold, Gold, Guizhou, Wall-rock sulfidation, Золото
Выпуск 102
Автор(ы):Albert H. Hofstra, Nutt† C.J.
Издание:Economic geology, 2007 г., 27 стр.
Bald mountain gold mining district, Nevada: a Jurassic reduced intrusion-related gold system

The Bald Mountain mining district has produced about 2 million ounces (Moz) of Au. Geologic mapping, field relationships, geochemical data, petrographic observations, fluid inclusion characteristics, and Pb, S, O, and H isotope data indicate that Au mineralization was associated with a reduced Jurassic intrusion. Gold deposits are localized within and surrounding a Jurassic (159 Ma) quartz monzonite porphyry pluton and dike complex that intrudes Cambrian to Mississippian carbonate and clastic rocks. The pluton, associated dikes, and Au mineralization were controlled by a crustal-scale northwest-trending structure named the Bida trend. Gold deposits are localized by fracture networks in the pluton and the contact metamorphic aureole, dike margins, high-angle faults, and certain strata or shale-limestone contacts in sedimentary rocks. Gold mineralization was accompanied by silicification and phyllic alteration, ±argillic alteration at shallow levels. Although Au is typically present throughout, the system exhibits a classic concentric geochemical zonation pattern with Mo, W, Bi, and Cu near the center, Ag, Pb, and Zn at intermediate distances, and As and Sb peripheral to the intrusion. Near the center of the system, micron-sized native Au occurs with base metal sulfides and sulfosalts. In peripheral deposits and in later stages of mineralization, Au is typically submicron in size and resides in pyrite or arsenopyrite. Electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses show that arsenopyrite, pyrite, and Bi sulfide minerals contain 10s to 1,000s of ppm Au. Ore-forming fluids were aqueous and carbonic at deep levels and episodically hypersaline at shallow levels due to boiling. The isotopic compositions of H and O in quartz and sericite and S and Pb in sulfides are indicative of magmatic ore fluids with sedimentary sulfur. Together, the evidence suggests that Au was introduced by reduced S-bearing magmatic fluids derived from a reduced intrusion. The reduced character of the intrusion was caused by assimilation of carbonaceous sedimentary rocks.

Tertiary faults dismember the area and drop down the upper part of the mineralizing system to the west. The abundant and widespread kaolinite in oxide ores is relatively disordered (1A polytype) and has δD and δ18O values suggestive of a supergene origin. The deep weathering and oxidation of the ores associated with exhumation made them amenable to open-pit mining and processing using cyanide heap leach methods.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Выпуск 101
Автор(ы):Boris Kotlyar, Helen Folger, Mary Jane Coombs, Steve Ludington, Thomas G.Hildenbrand, Victor G. Mossotti
Издание:Economic geology, 2006 г., 26 стр.
Regional surficial geochemistry of the Northern Great Basin

The regional distribution of arsenic and 20 other elements in stream-sediment samples in northern Nevada and southeastern Oregon was studied in order to gain new insights about the geologic framework and patterns of hydrothermal mineralization in the area. Data were used from 10,261 samples that were originally collected during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program in the 1970s. The data are available as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-0227.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
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