Mineral deposits of Finland / Месторождения полезных ископаемых Финляндии

Редактор(ы):Lahtinen R., Maier W.D., O'Brien H.
Издание:Elsevier, 2015 г., 818 стр., ISBN: 978-0-12-410438-9
Mineral deposits of Finland / Месторождения полезных ископаемых Финляндии

Historically documented mining in Finland started in the 1530s when the area formed part of Sweden. The post of commissioner of mines was founded in 1638. The Swedish government activated mineral exploration in Finland in the seventeenth century and, during the Age of Utility, in the eighteenth century. Numerous small iron, copper, and lead occurrences were found, as well as the larger Orijдrvi copper deposit. During 1809-1917 when Finland was a Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire, exploration was reorganized and strengthened. New, generally small iron deposits were discovered to supply iron works. Deposits found in the Pitkдranta area were mined for copper, tin, zinc, and iron. The Geological Survey of Finland was established in 1885. The large and rich Outokumpu copper deposit was discovered in 1910 as a result of scientific exploration by Otto Trьstedt of the Geological Survey. Since then, boulder tracing (later also till geochemistry), geophysical measurements, and diamond drilling have been the standard exploration methods. After Finland declared independence in 1917, mineral exploration was considered important for the development of domestic industry. In 1921 the Geological Survey discovered the nickel–copper ore field of Petsamo, and by the end of the 1930s other deposits, including the Otanmдki iron–titanium–vanadium deposit, were discovered. After the Second World War, the Geological Survey was reorganized and strengthened, and in the following decades it discovered numerous important ore deposits, including the Vihanti zinc–copper deposit (1951) and the Kemi chromium deposit (1960). The state-owned mining companies Outokumpu Oy and Rautaruukki Oy established their own exploration departments in the 1950s. Outokumpu Oy discovered the Kotalahti (1956), Vammala, and Kylmдkoski nickel–copper deposits, the Pyhдsalmi copper-zinc deposit (1958), the Vuonos (1965) and Kylylahti (1984) Outokumpu-type deposits, and several gold deposits. Otanmдki Oy/Rautaruukki Oy discovered several iron deposits in Lapland, as well as the large apatite-rich Sokli carbonatite complex. Rautaruukki Oy terminated their exploration activities in 1985 andOutokumpu Oy in 2003. Finnish private companies also carried out mineral exploration. After becoming a member of the European Union in 1995, the role of international mining and exploration companies has strongly increased in Finland, the main interest being in precious metal deposits. <...>

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
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