Выпуск 22
Автор(ы):Hofstra A.H., Yigit O.
Издание:Journal Ore geology reviews, 2003 г., 24 стр.
Lithogeochemistry of Carlin-type gold mineralization in the Gold Bar district, Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, Nevada

The Gold Bar district contains five Carlin-type gold deposits and four resources for a combined gold endowment of 1.6 M oz [50 t]. The gold deposits are hosted in Devonian carbonate rocks below parautochthonous and allochthonous Paleozoic siliciclastic rocks emplaced during the Early Mississippian Antler orogeny. The district is in the Battle Mountain-Eureka trend, a long-lived structural feature that localized intrusions and ore deposits of different types and ages.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Выпуск 101
Автор(ы):Christopher D.Henry, Michael W.Ressel
Издание:Economic geology, 2006 г., 37 стр.
Igneous Geology of the Carlin Trend, Nevada: Development of the Eocene Plutonic Complex and Significance for Carlin-Type Gold Deposits

The Carlin trend contains the largest concentration of Carlin-type gold deposits in the world. Two major controversies about these giant gold deposits have been their age, which is now firmly established as Eocene, and the source of heat, fluids, and metals, which remains debated. We present data that demonstrate an intense period of Eocene magmatism coincided in time and space with deposit formation and was arguably the primary heat source. Geologic studies over the last 40 years have emphasized the stratigraphy and structure of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, which are the major ore hosts. However, four igneous episodes affected the Carlin trend, in the Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene. A Jurassic diorite-granodiorite laccolith and related dikes were emplaced at about 158 Ma in the northern Carlin trend. A Cretaceous granite intruded the northcentral part of the trend at 112 Ma. Abundant Eocene dikes intruded along most of the trend and were accompanied by lavas in a large volcanic field along the southwest edge of the trend between ~40 and 36 Ma. Miocene rhyolite lavas erupted just west of and across the southern part of the trend at ~15 Ma.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Автор(ы):Marino F.
Издание:University of Nevada, Reno, 2003 г., 27 стр.
Structural and mineralogical features of the deep post gold deposit, Northern Carlin Trend, Nevada







6. Stratigraphy

7. Structures




ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Автор(ы):Greg B.Arehart
Издание:Department of Geology Science, Reno, 4 стр.
Isotopic signature of hydrothermal sulfares from Carlin-type ore deposit

Stable isotopes from sulfates of three origins in Carlin-type deposits (CTDs) from western North America fall into distinct clusters and can be utilized to discriminate between barite of Paleozoic (sedimentary exhalative) origin, barite of hydrothermal origin related to gold mineralization, and supergene alunite and jarosite of weathering origin. Although the latter are obvious from field relations, the distinction between hydrothermal and sedex barite is not always so clear. Sedex sulfate sulfur was probably reduced and mobilized during gold mineralization, equilibrated with hydrothermal fluids, and then precipitated as sulfate during the late stages of mineralization, with a distinctly different sulfur and oxygen isotope signature. Isotopic signatures of sulfates may, therefore, be utilized as a mineral exploration tool for CTDs.

ТематикаМинералогия, Полезные ископаемые
Автор(ы):Jackson M., Lewis Teal
Издание:2002 г., 11 стр.
Geologic overview of the Carlin trend gold deposits

The Carlin trend in northeastern Nevada forms the largest and most productive accumulation of gold deposits in North America. Teal and Jackson (1997b) reported a gold endowment that by the end of 1996 included past production, reserves, resources, and mineral inventory of over 107 million ounces (3,330 t [metric tons]). More than 40 separate deposits have been delineated since disseminated gold mineralization in carbonate host rocks was first discovered by Newmont geologists John Livermore and Alan Coope in 1961. From their original discovery, a classification for this style of gold mineralization has come to be referred to as “Carlin-type” deposits. By early 2002, more than 50 million ounces (1,560 t) of gold had been recovered on the Carlin trend from 26 separate operating or past producing mines. Open-pit mining began in 1965 at the Carlin Mine, and underground mining began in 1993 on the same deposit.

The scope of this paper is to present a regional geologic setting of the Carlin trend. As part of the concluding discussion, a spectrum of Carlin trend deposit types is categorized to illustrate the relative influence of structural and stratigraphic controls on each deposit.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Автор(ы):Groves D., Hall G., Wijns C.
Издание:Barossa Valley, 2004 г., 4 стр.
Compressional tectonics of the carlin gold trend

Pre-existing crustal structures are important in localising strain related to the large-scale evolution of an orogeny. Rheological contrasts between basement blocks will also influence the degree and location of faulting and relative uplift. In northern Nevada, U.S.A., basement architecture in the form of early rifted continental margins, formed during Proterozoic extension, may dictate the subsequent structural geometry of overlying sedimentary sequences during large-scale compression (Figure 1a). Within the region of the Carlin gold trend, specific anticlinal fold and thrust geometries in the sedimentary rocks, involved in various orogenies up until the Laramide, may focus fluid movement and provide effective traps to the system, resulting in the unique gold endowment of the area. Most mineralisation is situated less than 100 m below the Roberts Mountain thrust, which defines the lower boundary of the sequence of deep-water sedimentary rocks that has ridden over both the basement and younger sedimentary layers.

Muntean et al. (2003) argue that the Carlin and Battle Mountain–Eureka (BME) gold trends (Figure 1b) correspond to reactivated normal faults that likely had their origins in Proterozoic rifting. Numerical modelling offers a way to test the basic hypothesis by which “steps”, relics of continental rifting, control the subsequent location of upper crustal faults and anticlinal structures during compression.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Том 26, Выпуск 12
Автор(ы):Christopher D.Henry, David R. Boden
Издание:Journal Geology, 1998 г., 4 стр.
Eocene magmatism the heat source for Carlin-type gold deposits of northern Nevada

The origin of Carlin-type or sediment-hosted, disseminated gold deposits of the Great Basin, the major source of gold in the United States, is poorly understood. We propose that Eocene magmatism was the heat source that drove the hydrothermal systems that generated these deposits in the Carlin trend and Independence Mountains in northern Nevada. This interpretation is based on a strong spatial and temporal association of Eocene intrusive-volcanic centers with the gold deposits of this region. Our new work and published 40Ar/39Ar dates indicate that magmatism was particularly intense between 39 and 40 Ma throughout northeastern Nevada, especially in and around the area of gold deposits. Carlin-type deposits may have formed preferentially during Eocene magmatism because it was (1) more intense in the area than other magmatic episodes, (2) somehow compositionally distinct, or (3) accompanied by extension that promoted hydrothermal flow. However, large-scale extension does not appear to have been a factor in generating Carlin-type deposits.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Автор(ы):Hofstra A.H., Jean S. Cline, John L. Muntean, Kenneth A. Hickey, Richard M.T.
Издание:Economic geology, 2005 г., 34 стр.
Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada: critical geologic characteristics and viable models

Carlin-type Au deposits in Nevada have huge Au endowments that have made the state, and the United States, one of the leading Au producers in the world. Forty years of mining and numerous studies have provided a detailed geologic picture of the deposits, yet a comprehensive and widely accepted genetic model remains elusive. The genesis of the deposits has been difficult to determine owing to difficulties in identifying and analyzing the fine-grained, volumetrically minor, and common ore and gangue minerals, and because of postore weathering and oxidation. In addition, other approximately contemporaneous precious metal deposits have overprinted, or are overprinted by, Carlin-type mineralization.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Автор(ы):Gregory M. Dipple, Jean S. Cline, Jeremy R. Vaughan, Kenneth A. Hickey, Longo A.A., Matt R. Kilburn, Shaun L.L. Barker
Издание:Economic geology, 2009 г., 8 стр.
Uncloaking invisible gold: use of nanosims to evaluate gold, trace elements, and sulfur isotopes in pyrite from Carlin-type gold deposits

Вскрытие невидимого золота: использование наноразмеров для оценки содержания золота, микроэлементов и изотопов серы в пирите из золоторудных месторождений типа Карлин


One-hundred-nm-resolution secondary ionizing mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) was used to determine the distribution of Au, Cu, As, Sb, and S, and stable isotopes of S (34S/32S) in gold-bearing pyrite from two refractory Carlin-type gold deposits: West Banshee, northern Carlin Trend, and Turquoise Ridge, Getchell Trend, located in northern Nevada. NanoSIMS maps reveal that gold occurs in two discrete episodes in each deposit. Elevated gold concentrations correlate with elevated concentrations of As, Sb, Cu ± Te, and lower 34S/32S ratios, compared to periods when gold was not deposited. Precipitation of elevated gold and trace elements at West Banshee was followed by precipitation of pyrite with lower gold concentrations, whereas at Turquoise Ridge precipitation of trace element-rich pyrite was followed by precipitation of late ore-stage minerals. These NanoSIMS results are consistent with formation of the deposits by the episodic incursion of gold-rich fluids into hydrothermal systems otherwise dominated by gold-poor fluids. Such gold-rich fluid pulses may be related to incursions of magmatic fluid, which have been shown to have high concentrations of gold, arsenic, and copper in porphyry and high-sulfidation epithermal systems.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
Выпуск 98
Автор(ы):David P.Stenger, John Fortuna, Kesler S.E.
Издание:Economic geology, 2003 г., 12 стр.
Source of iron for sulfidation and gold deposition, Twin Creeks carlin-type deposit, Nevada

This study was undertaken to determine the source of iron in Comus Formation sedimentary rocks that were sulfidized during deposition of gold in the Megapit area of the Twin Creeks Carlin-type deposit. Sedimentary rocks in and near the Megapit contain ferroan dolomite, largely as overgrowths on iron-poor dolomite. Iron to form these overgrowths appears to have been released from mafic volcanic rocks that are interlayered with the sedimentary rocks. These igneous rocks have undergone two stages of hydrothermal alteration. The first stage involved formation of albite and iron-rich chlorite, possibly caused by interaction with seawater. The second stage involved destruction of the iron-rich chlorite by illite or sericite, which released iron to form ferroan dolomite in the sedimentary rocks. Comparisons show that transfer of iron from the igneous rocks to the sedimentary rocks can account for the present distributions of iron in these rocks. Relative to basalts, Comus Formation igneous rocks are enriched in iron and potassium. These results suggest that ferroan dolomite in sedimentary rocks is not solely a product of diagenetic processes and can form when iron is released from adjacent iron-bearing igneous rocks. Recognition of this additional mechanism for formation of ferroan dolomite expands the range of geologic settings that can be favorable for formation of gold deposits formed by sulfidation.

ТематикаПолезные ископаемые
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