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Выпуск 102
Издание:Economic geology, 2007 г., 27 стр.
Bald mountain gold mining district, Nevada: a Jurassic reduced intrusion-related gold system

The Bald Mountain mining district has produced about 2 million ounces (Moz) of Au. Geologic mapping, field relationships, geochemical data, petrographic observations, fluid inclusion characteristics, and Pb, S, O, and H isotope data indicate that Au mineralization was associated with a reduced Jurassic intrusion. Gold deposits are localized within and surrounding a Jurassic (159 Ma) quartz monzonite porphyry pluton and dike complex that intrudes Cambrian to Mississippian carbonate and clastic rocks. The pluton, associated dikes, and Au mineralization were controlled by a crustal-scale northwest-trending structure named the Bida trend. Gold deposits are localized by fracture networks in the pluton and the contact metamorphic aureole, dike margins, high-angle faults, and certain strata or shale-limestone contacts in sedimentary rocks. Gold mineralization was accompanied by silicification and phyllic alteration, ±argillic alteration at shallow levels. Although Au is typically present throughout, the system exhibits a classic concentric geochemical zonation pattern with Mo, W, Bi, and Cu near the center, Ag, Pb, and Zn at intermediate distances, and As and Sb peripheral to the intrusion. Near the center of the system, micron-sized native Au occurs with base metal sulfides and sulfosalts. In peripheral deposits and in later stages of mineralization, Au is typically submicron in size and resides in pyrite or arsenopyrite. Electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses show that arsenopyrite, pyrite, and Bi sulfide minerals contain 10s to 1,000s of ppm Au. Ore-forming fluids were aqueous and carbonic at deep levels and episodically hypersaline at shallow levels due to boiling. The isotopic compositions of H and O in quartz and sericite and S and Pb in sulfides are indicative of magmatic ore fluids with sedimentary sulfur. Together, the evidence suggests that Au was introduced by reduced S-bearing magmatic fluids derived from a reduced intrusion. The reduced character of the intrusion was caused by assimilation of carbonaceous sedimentary rocks.

Tertiary faults dismember the area and drop down the upper part of the mineralizing system to the west. The abundant and widespread kaolinite in oxide ores is relatively disordered (1A polytype) and has δD and δ18O values suggestive of a supergene origin. The deep weathering and oxidation of the ores associated with exhumation made them amenable to open-pit mining and processing using cyanide heap leach methods.

Автор(ы):Park A.F.
Издание:Elsevier, 1981 г., 5 стр.
Basement gneiss domes in the Svecokarelides of eastern Finland: discussion

A recent paper in this journal (J.-P. Brim. The cluster-ridge pattern of mantled gneiss domes in eastern Finland: evidence for large-scale gravitational instability of the Proterozoic crust. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 47 (1980) 441-449) resurrects Eskola's [I] concept of the mantled gneiss dome in the early Proterozoic Svecokarelian fold bell of Finland. The author cites amongst others, the Kuopio, Juojarvi, Maarianvaara. Kontiolahti, Liperi, Oravisalo and Sotkuma domes (see Fig. 1) as examples of the diapiric upwelling of lower-density, granitic Archaean basement rocks, into more dense, overlying Karelian metasedimentary formations. The distribution of these basement structures is interpreted as reflecting a periodicity. which by analogy with the centrifuge experiments of Ramberg [2], is a function of the interlayer density contrast and the layer thicknesses.

Автор(ы):Stadtler A.
Издание:Ruhr-universitat Bochum, Ruhr, 1998 г., 127 стр.
Bochumer geologische und geotchnische. Heft 49 (1998). Der bentheimer sandstein (Valangin, NW-Deutschland). Eine palokologische und sequenzstratigraphische analyse

This thesis represents one part of the European project “Geological characterisation of shallow marine sands for reservoir modelling and high resolution stratigraphic analysis”, which was established to study shallow marine sands with respect to reservoir properties. The research was focused on the micropalaeontological characterisation of mudstone and source rock successions and the nature, origin and reservoir characteristics of the Bentheim Sandstone in the Lower Saxony Basin.

Редактор(ы):Almeras Y.
Издание:Imprimerie Rhodanienne, Lyon, 1964 г., 154 стр.
Brachiopodes du lias et du dogger

Lorsque l'on se propose d'étudier les Brachiopodes du Lias et du Dogger , on est surpris par le grand nombre d'espèces créées aussi bien que par le nombre d'ouvrages décrivant des Brachiopodes . Devant un sujet aussi vaste , devant des efforts aussi dispersés , il m'a paru opportun de faire le point : dénombrer les espèces nouvelles d'après les recherches bibliographiques , mettre sur fiches méca-nalytiques leurs diagnoses originales , établir les listes synonymiques critiques est le premier travail à effectuer et il a pour résultat l'obtention de la durée moyenne  de  vie  pour chaque  espèce   (répartition stratigraphique) <...>

Автор(ы):Almeras Y.
Издание:Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Lyon, 1996 г., 196 стр., ISBN: 5-85454-088-3
Brachiopodes toarciens et aaleniens de la tethys nord-occidentale

The recent accessibility of the collection of Dumortier, the complementary collects in the Bas-Beaujolais and in the Southern Provence, allow us to present the paleontological revision of the Toarcian and Lower Aalenian brachiopods of the Rhone basin (Bas-Beaujolais, Mont d'Or Lyonnais, La Verpilliere - Saint Quentin-Fallavier and Southern Provence). Then, the systematics of Dumortier is reactualized. The different species are again located in a more precised strati graphical framework. So, it is possible to deduce the biostratigraphy of Toarcian and Lower Aalenian brachiopods and then, to verify the value of the zonal succession established before (Almeras & ah, 1991)

Издание:Blackwell science Ltd, Oxford, 1990 г., 482 стр., ISBN: 0-632-01472-5
Carbonate sedimentary

ТЬе intention of this book is to provide а detai!ed synthesis of the enormous body of research which has Ьееп published оп carbonate sediments and rocks. Such rocks аге worthy of attention for severa! reasons. ТЬеу аге vo!umetrically а most signifcant part of the geo!ogica! record and possess тисЬ of the fossil гес-ord of !ife оп this p!anet. Most importantly they contain at !east 40% of the wor!d's known hydroсагЬоп reserves. ТЬеу a!so р!ау host to base meta! deposits and groundwater resources, and аге raw materia!s for the construction and chemica! industries. No other rock type is as economically important.

Автор(ы):Чернышев Б.И.
Carbonicola, Anthracomya и Najadites Донецкого бассейна

Настоящая работа была закончена еще в 1924 г. В течение четырех лет я не мог, по различным соображениям технического характера, опубликовать ее. Такая задержка меня весьма радует, так как за это время я имел возможность обменяться коллекциями и письмами с профессором университета в Лилле P. Pruvost и тем самым подвергнул двойному контролю свои определения: с одной стороны, сравнив непосредственно свои образцы с французскими, с другой стороны—профессор P. Pruvost, просмотрев посланную ему коллекцию, указал на полное тождество донецких образцов с французскими и английскими. Другое обстоятельство, весьма благоприятное для моей работы, было то, что в течение четырех лет, постоянно работая в Донецком бассейне, я мог подвергать контролю те выводы, какие были мною сделаны в главах II и III. Такой контроль дал возможность, с одной стороны, подтвердить выводы и исправить мелкие недочеты и неправильные определения в тех толщах, которые подвергались наблюдению, с другой стороны—позволил расширить эти наблюдения на более обильном материале и, наконец, с третьей стороны—при таких наблюдениях часто удавалось разрешать некоторые неясные вопросы в геологии бассейна.

Выпуск 90
Автор(ы):Arthur W.Rose, Carl A.Kuehn
Издание:Economic geology, 1995 г., 20 стр.
Carlin gold deposits, Nevada: origin in a deep zone of mixing between normally pressured and overpressured fluids

Gold mineralization at Carlin is clearly younger than hydrocarbon maturation (pre-Cretaceous) and felsic dike intrusion (Cretaceous), and older than deep oxidation (late Tertiary). Within the episode of gold mineralization, the main gold ore (MGO) stage and late gold ore (LGO) stage are distinguished paragenetically, wi-th a variety of vein and mineralization types in each. MGO stage fluids contained 5 to 10 mole percent COa, appreciable H2S, and 3 ± 1 wt percent NaCl equiv. At least portions of MGO stage mineralization were characterized by two-phase boiling (COa exsolution) at 215° ± 30°C and 800 ± 400 bars. In contrast, LGO stage fluids were gas poor with salinities <1.5 wt percent NaCl equiv and record only nonboiling conditions. MGO stage fluids had 518Oh2o values of 5 to 9 per mil, whereas LGO stage fluids resembled unevolved meteoric water with 518Oh2o values < —3 per mil.

From the MGO stage to the LGO stage, calcite 5180 values shifted from near whole-rock values of 12 ± 3 per mil to around 0 ± 1 per mil as LGO stage fluids flooded the system. Jasperoids also record a large range (9-22%o) in 518Oh2o values. These data indicate the involvement of two very different fluids in ore deposition. Because MGO and LGO stage features are closely associated spatially with each other and with Au, As, Sb, Hg, and other ore elements, both fluids are believed to have both been present during most stages of ore deposition.

At pressures of 80 to 85 percent lithostatic, depths of 3.8 ± 1.9 km are required to accommodate the 800 ± 400 bars of pressure recorded in MGO stage fluid inclusions. Carlin, therefore, is not an epi-thermal or hot spring deposit. Carbon dioxide in gas-rich MGO stage fluids may have originated either directly from buried intrusions or their contact aureoles, or from low-grade regional metamorphism at depth. The water may have been originally meteoric, and Au may be magmatic or derived from leaching of deep metamorphic or sedimentary rocks. Ore deposition appears to have occurred in zones of throttling at a pressure seal between normally pressured and overpressured regimes, where fluids experienced a change from near-lithostatic to hydrostatic conditions. Such pressure seals are common in deep sedimentary basins and may be a key to highly localized gold deposition. Mixing of two fluids and interaction with host rocks along thin permeable bioclastic horizons are believed to have been the major factors in depositing ore.


Издание:Economic geology, 2005 г., 34 стр.
Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada: critical geologic characteristics and viable models

Carlin-type Au deposits in Nevada have huge Au endowments that have made the state, and the United States, one of the leading Au producers in the world. Forty years of mining and numerous studies have provided a detailed geologic picture of the deposits, yet a comprehensive and widely accepted genetic model remains elusive. The genesis of the deposits has been difficult to determine owing to difficulties in identifying and analyzing the fine-grained, volumetrically minor, and common ore and gangue minerals, and because of postore weathering and oxidation. In addition, other approximately contemporaneous precious metal deposits have overprinted, or are overprinted by, Carlin-type mineralization.