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Издание:Ruhr-universitat Bochum, Bochum, 1997 г., 135 стр.
Cretaceous depositional environments of NW Germany

15 outcrops exposing sediments of Early and Late Cretaceous age (Berriasian-Campanian) are described from the Subhercynian Basin (Quedlinburg-Blankenburg area) and the eastern part of Lower Saxony (Salzgitter-Hannover area). Apart from the bio- and lithostratigraphy, the fauna, flora, sedimentology, the palaeoenvironment and the regional position of these outcrops is discussed. New data and results going back to research performed from 1990 to 1996 are presented and sequence-stratigraphic models are proposed for some outcrops. Some of the microfauna and -flora and the macrofauna is documented by plates.

The following outcrops exposing sediments of Early Cretaceous age are described: the Obernkirchen Sandstone (Berriasian) at Munchehagen (No. 15), mid-Hauterivian sediments rich in ammonites near Resse (No. 13), pale-dark bedding rhythms of Late Hauterivian age near Frielingen (No. 14), Hauterivian iron ores of the Glockenberg section (No. 5) and clays of Barremian and Aptian age near Sarstedt (No. 9). Outcrops of sediments of Late Cretaceous age are: Hoppenstedt (No. 3), Vienenburg (No. 4), Baddeckenstedt (No. 6), and the HPCF II quarry at Misburg (No. 10), exposing the Cenomanian and Lower Turonian; the sediments exposed in the Salzgitter-Salder quarry (No. 7) are of mid-Turonian to Early Coniacian age, the Lehofsberg section near Quedlinburg (No. 1) is of mid-Coniacian age; shallow marine elastics of early Campanian age of the Subhercynian Basin are described from near Blankenburg (No. 2), marly and calcareous Campanian basinal sediments are exposed in the HPCF II (No. 10), Germania IV (No. 11) and Teutonia I (No. 12) quarries at Misburg.

Редактор(ы):Wiedmann J.
Издание:E.Schweizerbrat'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 1989 г., 978 стр.
Cretaceous of the Western Tethys

In 1978, in Munster, the German Subcommission on Cretaceous Stratigraphy initiated a first International Symposium on the Cretaceous. The focus of the symposium was on Germany and Central Europe. The proceedings were published in 1979. The second symposium was held in 1982 in Munich and concentrated on the Alpine Cretaceous. The proceedings were published in 1983.

Published in this volume are proceedings of the third symposium, which took place in Tubingen in 1987 and whose topic was the western Tethys. The participants of the symposium unanimously decided to dedicate the volume published to TOVE BIRKELUND in response to the loss of our highly esteemed Danish colleague.

Выпуск 9
Издание:Scottish Academic Press, Edinburg, 1978 г., 70 стр.
Cretaceous. A correlation of cretaceous rocks in the British isles

Designated terrains cretaces by d'Omalius d'Halloy in 1822, the System takes its name from creta, the Latin for chalk. This is the most conspicuous rock-type in Europe, and Cretaceous chalks are also known from parts of North America and Western Australia. The system is here divided into two and the term 'Middle Cretaceous' is not employed since it has no internationally agreed limits and is little used outside the Middle East. The Lower Cretaceous was formerly separated by some American authors as a distinct system, the Comanchean (from the town of Comanche, Texas). The Upper Cretaceous corresponds roughly to the Chalk Formation of earlier authors, chalk (Saxon cealc, German kalk, meaning lime) having been used as a geological term in England since the Middle Ages and in print from the time of Martin Lister (1684). Its white chalk cliffs gave England its first recorded name of "Albion". <...>

Выпуск 342
Автор(ы):Godard G., Kunze K., Mauler A.
Издание:Journal Tectonophysics, 2001 г., 32 стр.
Crystallographic fabrics of omphacite, rutile and quartz in Vendee eclogites (Armorican Massif, France). Consequences for deformation mechanisms and regimes

This study aims at further understanding of the mechanisms how lattice-preferred orientations (LPO) develop during deformation in the main eclogite minerals. Microstructures and textures of deformed eclogites from the Les Essarts complex (Western France) were investigated using optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope. Microfabric analyses of eclogite-facies minerals are used to identify their deformation mechanisms, which define the rheology at high-pressure metamorphic conditions. Mechanisms of intracrystalline deformation by dislocation movement (dislocation creep) result usually in a non-linear flow law (typically power law), while diffusive processes (diffusion creep) correspond to linear flow laws. General microstructural observations may suggest intracrystalline deformation (dislocation creep) of omphacite. The omphacite LPO vary between S- and L-type and correlate with oblate or prolate grain shape fabrics, respectively. Until now, these LPO types have not been understood by plasticity models based on dislocation glide on the known slip systems in clinopyroxene. An alternative interpretation is given in terms of anisotropic growth and dissolution, with grain boundary diffusion as the rate controlling process. There are further indications suggesting diffusion creep with concomitant anisotropic growth and dissolution as a main deformation mechanism in omphacite. In omphacite around a hollow garnet, crystallographic and shape fabrics align with the c[001] axes parallel to the grain elongations defining the mineral lineation, which rotates locally with the inferred flow direction. In this part, the grain sizes of omphacite and rutile are larger than in the surrounding matrix. The geometry of both the shape and crystallographic fabrics is interpreted to represent the local stress regime (directions and ratios of the principal stresses). The LPO of rutile duplicate the LPO of omphacite and a similar distinction between S- and L-type was used. Rutile deformation mechanisms probably involve dislocation creep as well as diffusion creep. Quartz mainly occurs as an interstitial phase with weak LPO patterns interpreted as random. No representative obliquity of the LPO in omphacite nor rutile with respect to foliation and lineation was observed to be used as potential shear sense criteria. However, the rutile LPO was slightly rotated relative to the omphacite LPO consistently in most samples. The results suggest that diffusion processes are strongly involved in the deformation of eclogites. A linear flow law should be taken into account in tectonic models where eclogites are incorporated. 

Выпуск 303
Издание:Journal Tectonophysics, 1999 г., 27 стр.
Crystallographic preferred orientations and misorientations in some olivine rocks deformed by diffusion or dislocation creep

The development of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) and grain misorientation distributions (MOD) in fine-grained (0.5–30 µm) olivine rocks, experimentally deformed by diffusion creep and dislocation creep has been investigated. The use of electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), has enabled the measurement of CPO in rocks which are too fine-grained to be measured by conventional U-stage methods. Our objective is to study the influence of deformation and recrystallisation mechanisms on the CPO and MOD. The olivine rocks studied were deformed in uni-axial compression, in a gas-medium apparatus, to 17–24% strain at temperatures of 1200–1300ºC and 300 MPa confining pressures. The samples show a trend of weaker CPO with lower flow stress which may be related to an increasing component of grain boundary sliding and diffusion creep. In the diffusion creep regime the CPO and MOD are weak to random, whereas in the dislocation creep regime the CPO and MOD are non-random but the MOD is principally controlled by the CPO. These results confirm the idea, based on studies from metals, that the CPO and MOD in olivine are characteristic of the deformation mechanism. Dynamic recrystallisation during dislocation creep results in the occurrence of more intermediate-angle (10–40º) grain boundaries than expected from the CPO. In local areas of complete recrystallisation the MOD is controlled by the CPO which implies that the statistical MOD retains no signature of the initial recrystallisation process. In the dislocation creep regime small grains have a weaker CPO compared to large grains. This result is consistent with predictions from deformation mechanism maps which indicate that the fine recrystallised grains deform by a combination of dislocation creep and grain boundary sliding. The grain boundaries found in the deformed olivine polycrystals are predominately high-angle boundaries with misorientations between 60 and 117º. No obvious evidence has been found for the occurrence of preferred misorientation, or special, grain boundaries.

Издание:Canadian Securities Administrators, 2003 г., 17 стр.
CSA staff notice 43-302 - FAQs - NI 43-101 Standart of disclosure for mineral projects

NI 43-101 is a rule that governs how issuers disclose scientific and technical information about their mineral projects to the public. To assist mining industry participants and their advisors in understanding and applying NI 43-101, we compiled a summary of questions and CSA staff responses (Frequently Asked Questions or FAQs) that was first published on October 19, 2001 and was revised on February 8, 2002. Attached to this notice is an update to the FAQs.

We update the summary of FAQs from time to time to assist in the interpretation and application of NI 43-101 as new issues arise. We continuously update this summary of FAQs rather than create supplemental summaries in order to retain one repository of interpretative guidance for the rule. We intend to publish another comprehensive update later this year.

Автор(ы):Jeremy P.Richards
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2005 г., 19 стр.
Cumulative Factors in the Generation of Giant Calc-Alkaline Porphyry Cu Deposits

The formation of porphyry Cu deposits in calc-alkaline magmatic arcs is considered to be the cumulative product of a wide range of processes beginning with dehydration of the subducting oceanic slab. No single process is key to the formation of large deposits, but the absence or inefficient operation of any contributory process, or the action of a deleterious process, can stunt or prevent deposit formation.

Издание 6
Издание:PennWell Corporation, 2006 г., 407 стр., ISBN: 1-800-752-9764
D&D Standard Oil & Gas Abbreviator / Стандартные нефтегазовые аббревиатуры

As the energy and related industries continue to change in order to survive and continue to bring new technology to the forefront, so have the Association of Desk and Derrick Clubs. We are proud to be associated with the sixth edition of the D&D Standard Oil Abbreviator. It has become an indispensable tool within the oil and gas industry. Information included in this book has made writing tasks within energy and its related industries simpler, and has through the years added consistency to industry reports <...>

Выпуск 4
Издание:Ocean Pictures, Москва, 2001 г., 128 стр., ISBN: 5-900395-28-6
Dalnegorsk. Mineralogical almanac / Дальнегорск. Минералогический альманах

This volume of Mineralogical Almanac is the first issue describing one of the World's Greatest Mineral Locality - Dalnegorsk. The issue provides a collector with information on the most important facts of geological structure, mineralogy and genesis of the Polymetallic and Boron deposits. It contains data on all deposits of the Dalnegorsk ore district. A special attention the authors paid to description of minerals of Dalnegorsk deposits that are of particular interest for collectors.

Автор(ы):Kraus M.
Издание:Wien, 1916 г., 226 стр.
Das staatliche Uranpecherzbergbaurevier bei St.Joachimsthal in Bohmen