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Автор(ы):Steve C.Brown
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2005 г., 16 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
A Review of the Geology and Mineralisation of the Alumbrera Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposit, Northwestern Argentina.

The Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper-gold deposit is located within the northern Sierras Pampeanas in the eastern Andes Mountains of northwestern Argentina. It formed in a tectonically favourable location within a major arc-oblique wrench fault system, the Tucuman Transfer Zone. Initial andesitic volcanism deposited on crystalline Lower Palaeozoic basement, and subsequently emplaced dacitic subvolcanic stocks are directly related to eastward subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the western continental margin of South America. Structural preparation and shallowing of the angle of subduction of the Nazca plate -related to the arc-normal Juan Fernandez Ridge on that plate - probably aided the ascent of calc-alkaline oceanic arc-related magma into the Tucuman Transfer Zone.

Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2002 г., 11 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
A Short Review of Palaeozoic Hydrothermal Magnetite Iron-Oxide Deposits of the South and Central Urals, and their Geological Setting

The Urals orogen represents the site of Palaeozoic oceanic crust creation and subsequently a zone of arc development, arc-continent collision, continent-continent collision and post-orogenic collapse. The orogen is host to a number of world-class VMS deposits in the Silurian to Devonian arc sequences but in addition is host to highly significant iron oxide deposits of both hydrothermal and orthomagmatic origin. The hydrothermal ores are developed in Palaeozoic belts associated with rift-related, dominantly mafic, largely subaerial, alkaline volcanism intruded by comagmatic stocks of varying ages, from the Late Silurian to Early Carboniferous. Volcanism, sedimentation and mineralisation all seem to be controlled by major N to NNE trending structures. Much of the mafic volcanic sequence shows hematisation, which is evidence of early oxidation of the lava-tuff packages. Mineralisation comprises massive and disseminated magnetite bodies with elevated REE and ubiquitous accessory apatite. The deposits can be huge, as for example the giant Carboniferous Kachar deposit in Kazakhstan with reserves of over a billion tonnes of >45% Fe are defined. Some of the bodies are true contact skarns developed at the interface between intrusive bodies and volcano-sediments which include limestones. Other bodies, including Kachar, are distal to any possible related intrusions and are developed within regionally extensive scapolite alteration zones. A regionally consistent pattern of early feldspar ± biotite alteration followed by ore-stage pyroxene-garnet-scapolite followed by late hydrous silicate-carbonate alteration is repeated throughout the Urals. Regionally extensive scapolitisation is common in most of the belts. Base metals are generally present in the deposits, often appearing late in the paragenetic sequence, with some bodies having near economic copper grades (0.6% Cu) and significant precious metals.

Издание:Wiley, 2020 г., 591 стр., ISBN: 978-1-119-65097-3
Язык(и)Английский
A Study in Earth’s Geological Evolution. The Baltic Shield / Исследование геологической эволюции Земли. Балтийский щит

Understanding the basics of Earth’s emergence and evolution at every stage is a fundamental, almost philosophic problem comparable with the issues of the universe. On the other hand, it reflects an applied nature in substantiation of manifestation patterns of endogenous and exogenous processes affecting even the socioeconomic evolution of human society. The book begins with a brief description of Earth’s planetary evolution physical theory built based on an analysis of its energy balance. The theory is based on two source concepts. First, it is accepted that the Earth, according to O.Yu. Schmidt’s hypothesis, had emerged after homogenous accretion of a cold gas-dust proto-planetary cloud. Second, the Earth’s core is composed of an iron with its oxide alloy (on condition that the composition of the mantle and of the Earth’s crust is known). Both assumptions are currently most substantiated and accepted by most geophysicists. It turned out that these two assumptions are sufficient for constructing a self-consistent theory as they include all necessary information about the original Earth’s structure and its internal energy. Comparing based on experimental data equation of state for this matter and applying the laws of physics, it is possible to construct the theory itself. At that, the use of geological data is expedient as edge (boundary) conditions for the problem to be resolved. The young Earth’s evolution and its spinning around the axis of own revolution had substantially depended on tidal interaction of our planet with the Moon, and for this reason we had to review a model of its origin <...>

Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2005 г., 18 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
A Tectonic Model for Porphyry Copper-Molybdenum-Gold Deposits in the Eastern Indo-Asian Collision Zone

Two Himalayan porphyry copper-molybdenum-gold belts have been developed in the eastern part of the Himalayan-Tibet orogenic zone related to the collision between the Indian and Asian Plates. Both were accompanied by the emplacement of high-level intracontinental, alkali-rich, potassic felsic magmas which produced a huge Cenozoic belt of potassic igneous rock. The emplacement of these magmas was controlled by large-scale strike-slip fault systems, orientated roughly orthogonal to the of the Indo-Asian continental convergence, which adjusted the collisional strain. The Jomda-Markam-Xiangyun copper-molybdenum belt is the western of the two, developed along a narrow zone following the Nanqian thrust, the Jinshajiang fault system, and the Red River shear zone, whereas the eastern, the Zhongdian-Yanyuan-Yao'an porphyry copper-gold-silver belt, was developed along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton. The ore-bearing porphyries have compositions which include granite, monzogranite, and monzonite, with a small amount of quartz-syenite porphyry. They are distinguished from barren porphyries by their higher Si02 (>63 wt %), lower Y (<20 ppm) and their adakitic magma affinity. All alkali-rich porphyries are relatively enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (K, Rb and Ba) and depleted in high-field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Ti and P) with a wide range of Nb/Y ratios.

Издание:International Association for Gondwana Research, 2002 г., 20 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
A Vendian-Cambrian Island Arc System of the Siberian Continent in Gorny Altai (Russia, Central Asia)

An extended Vendian-Cambrian island-arc system similar to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana type is described in the Gorny Altai terrane at the margin of the Siberian continent.

Three different tectonic stages in the terrane are recognized. (1) A set of ensimatic active margins including subducted oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian ocean, the Uimen-Lebed primitive island arc, oceanic islands and seamounts: the set of rocks is assumed to be formed in the Vendian. (2) A more evolved island arc comprising calc-alkaline volcanics and granites: a fore-arc trough in Middle-late Cambrian time was filled with disrupted products of pre-Middle Cambrian accretionary wedges and island arcs. (3) Collision of the more evolved island arc with the Siberian continent: folding, metamorphism and intrusion of granites occurred in late Cambrian-early Ordovician time. In the late Paleozoic, the above-mentioned Caledonian accretion-collision structure of the Siberian continent was broken by large-scale strike-slip faults into several segments. This resulted in the formation of a typical mosaic-block structure.

Выпуск 20
Редактор(ы):Osmolska H.
Издание:Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warszawa, 1975 г., 139 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Acta paleontologica Polonica. Vol XX

Relatively frequently found, the specimens of Homalonotinae are, in general, poorly preserved and, therefore, they are among the groups of trilobites that have so far been rather insufficiently studied. Since their occurrence is limited to the Llandovery through Middle Devonian, they may serve as a good index fossil. Their paleogeographical and correlative importance in the Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian was discussed separately (Tomczykowa, 1974).

The materials, on which the present paper is based, were collected by the writer in 1956—1958 in the Holy Cross Mts. Most of them, however, come from the boreholes managed by the Geological Institute, that is, from Goldap, Bostow, Ciepielow, Bialopole, Krowie Bagno, Lopiennik, Strzelce IG-2 and Zakrzew IG-3, as well as from the drillings of the Oil Research Survey (Malochwiej and Rozkopaczew boreholes) (Text-fig.  1). <...>

Редактор(ы):Jenne E.A.
Издание:Academic Press, 581 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Adsorption of metals by geomedia. Variables, mechannism and model applications /  Адсорбция металлов геомедией. Переменные, механизм и модельные приложения

Metal adsorption and desorption are crucial processes in the remediation of contaminated surficial geomedia (e.g., soils) and aquifers. Contaminant transport modeling, which necessarily includes some adsorption parameter, has important uses in anticipating the direction, speed, and extent of contaminant migration in ground water. Adsorption processes are of vital importance in many industrial processes in the beneficiation of various ores (some of which were formed largely as the result of adsorption processes).

Автор(ы):Mousa W.A.
Издание:Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2019 г., 341 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Advanced digital signal processing of seismic data /  Усовершенствованная цифровая обработка сейсмических данных

Seismic data must be interpreted using digital signal processing techniques in order to create accurate representations of petroleum reservoirs and the interior structure of the Earth. This book provides an advanced overview of digital signal processing (DSP) and its applications to exploration seismology using real world examples. The book begins by introducing seismic theory, describing how to identify seismic events in terms of signals and noise, and how to convert seismic data into the language of DSP. Deterministic DSP is then covered, together with non-conventional sampling techniques. The final part covers statistical seismic signal processing via Wiener optimum filtering, deconvolution, linear-prediction filtering, and seismic wavelet processing. With over 60 end-of-chapter exercises, seismic data sets, and data processing MATLAB codes included, this is an ideal resource for electrical engineering students unfamiliar with seismic data, and for earth scientists and petroleum professionals interested in DSP techniques.

Том 1
Автор(ы):Марфунин А.С.
Издание:Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994 г., 550 стр., ISBN: 3-540-57254-6; 0-387-57254-6
Язык(и)Английский
Advanced mineralogy. Composition, structure and properties of mineral matter. Vol 1.

All existing introductory reviews of mineralogy are written according to the same algorithm, sometimes called the "Dana System of Mineralogy". Even modern advanced handbooks, which are certainly necessary, include basic data on minerals and are essentially descriptive. When basic information on the chemistry, structure, optical and physical properties, distinguished features and para-genesis of 200-400 minerals is presented, then there is practically no further space available to include new ideas and concepts based on recent mineral studies.

A possible solution to this dilemma would be to present a book beginning where introductory textbooks end for those already familiar with the elementary concepts. Such a volume would be tailored to specialists in all fields of science and industry, interested in the most recent results in mineralogy.

This approach may be called Advanced Mineralogy. Here, an attempt has been made to survey the current possibilities and aims in mineral matter investigations, including the main characteristics of all the methods, the most important problems and topics of mineralogy, and related studies.

The individual volumes are composed of short, condensed chapters. Each chapter presents in a complete, albeit condensed, form specific problems, methods, theories, and directions of investigations, and estimates their importance and strategic position in science and industry.

Том 2
Автор(ы):Марфунин А.С.
Издание:Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994 г., 441 стр., ISBN: 5-540-57255-4; 0-387-57255-4
Язык(и)Английский
Advanced mineralogy. Methods and instrumentations. Results and recent developments. Vol. 2

Changes in the methods of investigation have had a crucial impact on progress in mineralogy. Many important methods have emerged with their own parameters, interpretations, problems, new albeit restricted possibilities and scopes, and with their own instrumentation and measurement tools. Even the aims and contents of the investigations have changed. Two processes can be discerned:

1.  The logical completion of developing and elaborating the methods, i.e. determining all physical principles based on a single, general, multifaceted phenomenon: the interaction of radiation (particles) with matter.

These interactions and hence these methods can be presented schematically by two coordinates. One is energy (or wavelength of radiation) and parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (nuclear, X-ray and electron, UV, visible, IR, microwave, SHF and RF). The other coordinate is represented by the modes of interaction (spectroscopy-absorption, emission, scattering-diffractometry, microscopy). The various intersection points in this system of coordinates have already been determined and elaborated in detail according to theoretical and instrumentational aspects.

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