Поиск по книгам
Издание:Springer, 1995 г., 229 стр., ISBN: 978-94-010-4228-4
Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World. Part 2. Former USSR / Щелочные породы и карбонатиты мира. Часть 2. Бывший СССР

Although the great diversity of alkaline rocks, with their relatively exotic mineralogies, has always attracted the interest of petrologists, as have the more recently defined carbonatites, it could be argued that little progress has been made over the past so years towards formulating a comprehensive petrogenesis of these rocks. It could also be maintained that as the alkaline varieties have the most extreme compositions of all igneous rocks, so an understanding of their genesis is essential if we are to understand fully the workings of the solid earth, while a knowledge of the most extreme products of differentiation must inevitably cast light on rocks of less extreme compositions. The importance of academic research on these rocks is thus clear. There is, however, also a commercial aspect, in so far as they are an increasingly important source of a wide range of industrial raw materials, which has stimulated not only programmes to discover more occurrences, but also to investigate in greater detail those already known

Выпуск 98
Издание:Economic geology, 2003 г., 17 стр.
Alligator Ridge District, East-Central Nevada: Carlin-type gold mineralization at Shallow Depths

Carlin-type deposits in the Alligator Ridge mining district are present sporadically for 40 km along the north-striking Mooney Basin fault system but are restricted to a 250-m interval of Devonian to Mississippian strata. Their age is bracketed between silicified ca. 45 Ma sedimentary rocks and unaltered 36.5 to 34 Ma volcanic rocks. The silicification is linked to the deposits by its continuity with ore-grade silicification in Devonian-Mis-sissippian strata and by its similar δ18O values (~17‰) and trace element signature (As, Sb, Tl, Hg). Eocene reconstruction indicates that the deposits formed at depths of ≤300 to 800 m. In comparison to most Carlin-type gold deposits, they have lower Au/Ag, Au grades, and contained Au, more abundant jasperoid, and tex-tural evidence for deposition of an amorphous silica precursor in jasperoid. These differences most likely result from their shallow depth of formation.

Выпуск 63
Издание:Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 1998 г., 31 стр.
Alteration and primary geochemical dispersion associated with the Bulletin lode-gold deposit, Wiluna, Western Australia

The Bulletin lode-gold deposit is within the northernmost part of the Norseman-Wiluna greenstone belt in me Archaean Yilgarn Block, Western Australia. It is located within a brittle-ductile shear zone and hosted by tholeiitic metavolcanic rocks. Syn-metamorphic wallrock alteration envelops the gold mineralisation and is pervasive throughout the entire shear zone and extends up to 150 m into the undeformed wallrocks. Alteration is characterised by the sequence of distal chlorite-calcite, intermediate calcite-dolomite, outer proximal sericite and inner proximal dolomite-sericite zones. The thickness of the alteration envelope, and the occurrence of dolomite in the alteration sequence, can be used as a rough guide to the width, extent and grade of gold mineralisation, because a positive correlation exists between these variables. Mass transfer evaluations indicate that chemical changes related to the wallrock alteration are similar in all host rocks: in general, Ag, As, Au, Ba, C02, K, Rb, S, Sb, Те and W are enriched, Na and Y are depleted, and Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Nb, Ni, P, Se, V, Zn and Zr are immobile, while Ca, Si and Sr show only minor or negligible relative changes. The degree of mobility of each component increases with proximity to gold mineralisation. The largest potential exploration targets are possibly defined by regional As (>6 ppm) and Sb (>0.6 ppm) anomalies. These anomalies, if real, extend laterally for > 150 m from the mineralised shear zone into areas of apparently unaltered rocks. Anomalies defined by Те (> 10 ppb), W (>0.6 ppm), carbonation indices, local enrichment of Sb (>2.0 ppm) and As (>28 ppm), and potassic alteration indices also form significant exploration targets extending beyond the HJB shear zone and the Au anomaly (>6 ppb) and, locally, into apparently unaltered rock. Gold, itself, has a restricted dispersion, with an anomaly extending for 1-35 m from ore, and being restricted to within the shear zone itself. Amongst individual geochemical parameters, only As and Sb define significant, consistent and smooth trends (vectors) when laterally approaching the ore. However, the respective dimensions of individual geochenucal anomalies can be used as an extensive, though stepwise, vector towards ore

Выпуск 96
Автор(ы):Jean S. Cline, Tracy L.C.
Издание:Economic geology, 2001 г., 18 стр.
Alteration associated with gold deposition at the getchell carlin-type gold deposit, North-Central Nevada

Wall-rock alteration at the Getchell underground deposit was examined to determine the effects of Au-bear-ing fluids on host lithologies and the relationship between K-bearing alteration minerals and Au deposition. The major, minor, and trace element geochemistry of highly altered and mineralized to unmineralized rocks from the Getchell deposit was quantified for more than 50 samples collected along 13 transects through calcareous siltstone and carbonaceous limestone and along one transect through a rhyodacite dike. Each transect in sedimentary rocks was collected along a single homogeneous bed that could be followed from high-grade ore to moderately altered rock or waste rock. Analyses were obtained for 39 elements, 10 oxides, and loss on ignition, using multiple techniques. Petrographic studies were integrated with geochemistry and X-ray diffraction and electron microbeam analyses to identify ore and alteration minerals and to correlate mineralogy with geochemical fluxes.

Автор(ы):David A.Johnson, Mark D.Barton
Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2002 г., 18 стр.
Alternative brine source for Fe-oxide (-Cu-Au) systems: implications for hydrothermal alteration and metals

No single model satisfactorily accounts for the diverse characteristic of Fe-oxide-rich hydrothennal systems. Consideration of a spectrum of geologically reasonable models gives insight into the origins of variability among these deposits. Key features that need to be rationalized by any model are the abundance of hydrothermal magnetite and/or hematite, the chemically distinct suite of elements (REE-Cu-Co-Au-Ag-U), the variability of associated magmas, the distributions and volumes of associated hydrothennal alteration, and the broader geologic setting(s).

Geologic and geochemical evidence show that the ore-fonning fluids are brines, but the source of the brines is controversial. Multiple sources are possible, indeed likely. The identity and consequences of alternative sources - magmatic and non-magmatic are considered: First, by a review of plausible fluids and general consequences, second, by examination of the system characteristics, third, by specific consideration of the consequences of alternative models, and fourth, by consideration of selected systems where non-magmatic brines must play a major role.

We review some of the key characteristics of different types of hydrothermal Fe-oxide-rich(-Cu-Au) systems. Some are economic; many are only geochemically anomalous. Two end-members and several variants on these end members are proposed. One group is typified by relatively high-temperature mineralization, and relatively high K/Na and Si/Fe in the alteration. We suggest that these features (and others) are distinctive of magmatic fluid sources and that this group overlaps with porphyry Cu-Au and related deposit types. A second, broad group is typified by more oxide-rich, sulfide-poor mineralization, low Si/Fe ratios, and voluminous alkali-rich alteration where sodic types commonly exceed K-rich varieties. We suggest that the key features of this group reflect involvement of non-magmatic brines and that ore grades are less common as the metals are less easily trapped. Hybrid examples, where fluids of both types are involved, are expected (and known).

Conceptual and quantitative models of magmatic and non-magmatic fluid sources yield insight into the expected differences, the source and distribution of metals within these systems, and possible controls on ore deposition. These models highlight the difference between magma-sourced fluids and non-magmatic fluids. The former tend to be focused at the tops of magma chambers and have a built-in depositional mechanism -cooling. The latter require a different type of focusing mechanism - structural or stratigraphic, and different traps - mixing, specialized host rocks, and/or boiling. These models predict consistent differences in mineral assemblages, metal contents, alteration volumes, zoning, paragenesis, and geochemistry. For magmatic fluid sources, the models reproduce the key characteristics of that group, notably the porphyry-related systems. For non-magmatic brine sources, predicted characteristics match well with observations of Fe-oxide-rich systems in environments where these fluids are known to dominate, including mafic igneous systems and modem analogs such as the Salton Sea. These cases show that Fe-oxide (-Cu-Au-REE-Co) enrichments can result from non-magmatic sources. In other environments (e.g., with intermediate to felsic igneous rocks; settings deeper than ~5 km) the relative importance of various fluid sources and their consequences for mineralization remain to be fully explored. Young systems in the American Cordillera and elsewhere can help unravel the many threads that relate these enigmatic mineral deposits.

Автор(ы):Остроумов М.Н.
Издание:Elsevier, 2016 г., 218 стр., ISBN: 978-5-7325-0675-4
Язык(и)Английский (перевод с русского)
Amazonite: mineralogy, crystal chemistry, and typomorphism / Амазонит: минералогия, кристаллохимия и типоморфизм

Amazonite is a mineral that has attracted scientific attention for generations and has been studied by prominent geologists including A. des Cloiseaux, N.I. Koksharov, V.I. Vernadsky, A.E. Fersman, V.M. Goldschmidt, and A.N. Zavaritsky. The history of amazonite discovery and scientific research is rich in riddles, paradoxes, misconceptions, and presuppositions. The time and place of the first amazonite finding is heavily debated even today. The very name of the mineral seems paradoxical, as there have been no known amazonite fields in the Amazon River basin. Evaluations of the mineral’s significance remain quite controversial [1, 2, 23]. Despite more than two centuries of research history and innumerable papers dedicated to amazonite, it continues to draw the attention of geologists and mineralogists. What are the reasons for this continuing interest in amazonite? <...>

МеткиАмазонит (5)
Автор(ы):Schoch R.R.
Издание:Wiley Blackwell, 2012 г., 293 стр., ISBN: 978-0-470-65658-7
Amphibian evolution: the life of early land vertebrates / Эволюция земноводных: жизнь ранних сухопутных позвоночных

This book focuses on the first vertebrates to conquer the land, and on their long journey to become fully independent from the water. It will trace the origin of tetrapod features and try to explain how and why they transformed into organs that permit life on land. The classic idea of early land vertebrates is that they were similar to modern amphibians. Right or wrong, the vast majority of early tetrapods are therefore classified as amphibians (or more precisely their stem taxa). Accordingly, this book is centered on early amphibian evolution, a topic that effectively includes all early tetrapods, and it will also analyze facts and opinions on the origins of modern amphibians. The major part of the story covers events that occurred over the past 370 million years, but it is far from restricted to paleontology.

My own motivation to study the amphibian fossil record derives in large part from a fascination with the development, ecology, and evolution of their modern representatives. Therefore I consider many topics that can only be covered by examination of extant animals: features of the soft body, functions of organs that mediate breathing, feeding, hearing, and locomotion, the morphogenesis of body parts, larval development, metamorphosis, and ecology.

Выпуск 24
Автор(ы):Childs C., Nicol A., Walsh J.J.
Издание:Pergamon, 2002 г., 7 стр.
An alternative model for the growth of faults

Conventional growth models suggest that faults become larger due to systematic increases in both maximum displacement and length. We propose an alternative growth model where fault lengths are near-constant from an early stage and growth is achieved mainly by increase in cumulative displacement. The model reconciles the scaling properties of faults and earthquakes and predicts a progressive increase in fault displacement to length ratios as a fault system matures. This growth scheme is directly applicable to reactivated fault systems in which fault lengths were inherited from underlying structure and established rapidly; the model may also apply to some non-reactivated fault systems. Near-constant fault lengths during subsequent growth are attributed to retardation of lateral propagation by interaction between fault tips. The model is validated using kinematic constraints from growth strata, which are displaced by a system of reactivated normal faults in the Timor Sea, NW Australia.

Выпуск 92
Автор(ы):Mark D.Barton, Robert P.Ilchik
Издание:Economic geology, 1996 г., 20 стр.
An amagmatic origin of Carlin-type gold deposits

Carlin-type deposits are major sources of gold, yet their origins are enigmatic. Suggested genetic models make connections to magmatism, regional metamorphism, or regional extension. Depositional mechanisms are uncertain as well. We propose on the basis of geologic, physical, and chemical reasoning, a genetic model in which meteoric fluids were circulated by heat released during crustal extension. These fluids interacted at depth with the sedimentary rock pile and scavenged gold. Upon upwelling, these fluids interacted with various lithologies and/or other fluids and produced the characteristic alteration and metal suites of these deposits. To test the viability of this amagmatic model, we have investigated certain physical and chemical constraints implicit to the model.

Выпуск 256
Автор(ы):Bons P.D., Urai J.L.
Издание:Journal Tectonophysics, 1996 г., 20 стр.
An apparatus to experimentally model the dynamics of ductile shear zones

We present a ring-shear apparatus designed to deform soft, ductile rock analogues to arbitrarily high shear strains in simple shear, in experiments attempting to model processes that occur in natural ductile shear zones. The sintered specimen is deformed between two unsupported cylinders by two rotating grips, under a normal and shear stress up to 5 MPa and at temperatures up to 600 K. First results of experiments with octachloropropane (OCP, C3C18) and camphor (C10Hl6O) are presented.