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Автор(ы):Arp G., Queric N.-V., Reitner J.
Издание:Springer, 2011 г., 572 стр., ISBN: 0930-0317, 978-3-642-10415-2
Язык(и)Английский
Advances in stromatolite geobiology / Достижения в геобиологии строматолитов

Stromatolites are the most intriguing geobiological structures of the entire history of the earth since the early beginning of the fossil record in the Archaean. Traditionally, stromatolites and related microbial sediments are interpreted as biosedimentological remains of biofilms and microbial mats.
Stromatolites are important environmental and evolutionary archives that give us plenty of information about ancient habitats, biodiversity, evolution of complex benthic biosystems, and generally of Global Change. However, many aspects of the formation, biology, and geobiology of these structures are still cryptic and poorly understood. <...>

Издание:Sрringer, 2006 г., 262 стр., ISBN: 1402044690, 1402044704
Язык(и)Английский
Advances in the Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide

This volume organise presentations given by leading international researchers at a NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the state-of-the-art of geological storage of CO
2. The book is divided into 5 parts. Part 1 provides background by describing how human activities are modifying the atmosphere in industrially-active areas in Siberia. Part 2 outlines the innovative idea of using deep permafrost layers as either impermeable boundaries below which CO2 can be injected or as a cooling source for the formation CO2 clathrates. Part 3 describes recent studies conducted on naturally occurring CO2 reservoirs, sites which have the potential to help us understand the possible long-term evolution of CO2 storage sites. Part 4 outlines various industrial-scale applications of CO2 geological storage and shows it to be technically practical, economically feasible and, to date, very safe. Finally Part 5 gives us a view of the future, showing how energy uses are predicted to change over the next 50 years and how the public must be involved in any future decisions regarding climate change abatement.

Источник:twirpx
Редактор(ы):Bear J., Corapcioglu M.Y.
Издание:Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, 1987 г., 1017 стр., ISBN: 978-94-010-8121-4
Язык(и)Английский
Advances in Transport Phenomena in Porous Media / Улучшение переноса в пористых средах

This volume contains the lectures presented at the NATO ADVANCED STUDY INSTITUTE that took place at Newark, Delaware, U.S.A., July 14-23, 1985. The objective of this meeting was to present and discuss selected topics associated with transport phenomena in porous media. By their very nature, porous media and phenomena of transport of extensive quantities that take place in them, are very complex. The solid matrix may be rigid, or deformable (elastically, or following some other constitutive relation), the void space may be occupied by one or more fluid phases. Each fluid phase may be composed of more than one component, with the various components capable of interacting among themselves and/or with the solid matrix. The transport process may be isothermal or non-isothermal, with or without phase changes. <...>

Автор(ы):Falsaperla S., Hammer C., Langer H.
Редактор(ы):Spichak V.
Издание:Elsevier, 2020 г., 330 стр., ISBN: 978-0-12-811842-9
Язык(и)Английский
Advantages and Pitfalls of Pattern Recognition Selected Cases in Geophysics / Преимущества и недостатки распознавания образов в отдельных случаях в геофизике

The digital era has caused an outstanding change in the acquisition of information concerning our planet. We are accustomed to an uninterrupted monitoring by means of satellite imagery, measurements of ground deformation in the context of geodynamical studies, seismic and geochemical data acquisition, etc. Continuous data acquisition in Earth sciences, in general, and geophysics, in particular, leads to the accumulation of a huge amount of information. Terabytes and Terabytes of data pile up in digital archives over short times. Often, we are left without a key to these archives, which turn them into “data graves,” containing precious information difficult to unearth. In addition, many geological processes are slow phenomena, the study of which comes along with the need to cover time spans as long as possible. Therefore, the necessity to “unearth” old archives becomes of paramount importance <...>

Автор(ы):Reeves K.
Издание:Geosoft, 2005 г., 154 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Aeromagnetic surveys. Principles, practice & interpretation / Аэромагнитные исследования. Принципы, практика и интерпретация

From the point of view of geomagnetism, the earth may be considered as made up of three parts: core, mantle and crust (Figure 1.1). Convection processes in the liquid part of the iron core give rise to a dipolar geomagnetic field that resembles that of a large bar-magnet aligned approximately along the earth's axis of rotation (Figure 1.2). The mantle plays little part in the earth's magnetism, while interaction of the (past and present) geomagnetic field with the rocks of the Earth's crust produces the magnetic anomalies recorded in detailed (e.g. aeromagnetic) surveys carried out close to the earth's surface.

Редактор(ы):Ali S.H., Collins N., Struman K.
Издание:Routledge, 2019 г., 320 стр., ISBN: 978-1-138-60692-0
Язык(и)Английский
Africa’s mineral fortune. The science and politics of mining and sustainable development / Минеральная удача Африки. Наука и политика горнодобывающей промышленности и устойчивого развития

For many centuries Africa’s rich mineral endowment has shaped the fortunes of its peoples and the environment. Beginning in the early twenty-first century, the commodities price boom and concerns about human impacts on the environment have seen increasing value placed on the continent’s renewable and non-renewable natural resources. Operators explored and extracted mineral and energy resources at an unprecedented pace during the boom, with regulators scrambling to keep up. The limitations of the so-called commodities super cycle soon became apparent to Africa’s policymakers and investors alike, however, prompting a need for revised approaches to resource governance in the past five years.1 At the same time, competing land and water uses, deforestation, and loss of biodiversity remain key concerns for climate change mitigation and environmental conservation. This raises an enduring question: How does Africa develop its mineral fortune sustainably, both in environmental and in socio-economic terms? The concentration of low-income, resource-dependent countries in Africa places it at the center of global debates about sustainable development and the extractive industries. <...>

Издание:СО РАН НИЦ ОИГГМ, Новосибирск, 1993 г., 94 стр., ISBN: 5-7323-1784-6
Язык(и)Английский
Age and chemical composition of the Zhamanshin crater impactites and tektites and comparison with Australasian tektites

ТЬе Zhamanshin impact ci'ater is the only impact crater оп the Earth where impactites, various tektites and microtektites coexist. Тhus the Crater becomes the best object to solve the old tektite puzzle. Published before and new data оп the radiogenic ages and chemistry of the Zhamanshin tektites and Australasian tektites summarized to demonstrate their close genetic relations. ТЬе tektite age-paradox serves as the base evidence in favor of the exstraterrestrial origin of tektites. Тhe petrographical and petrochemical features of tektites demonstrate their most рсоЬаЫе volcanic origin.

Выпуск 94
Издание:Economic geology, 1998 г., 34 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Age Constraints on Jerritt Canyon and Other Carlin-Type Gold Deposits in the Western United States— Relationship to Mid-Tertiary Extension and Magmatism

Carlin-type gold deposits are difficult to date and a wide range of ages has been reported for individual deposits. Therefore, several methods were employed to constrain the age of the gold deposits in the Jerritt Canyon district. Dated igneous rocks with well-documented crosscutting relationships to ore provided the most reliable constraints. K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dates on igneous rocks are as follows: andesite dikes 324 Ma, sericitic alteration in andesite dikes 118 Ma, basalt dikes 40.8 Ma, quartz monzonite dikes 39.2 Ma, and calc-alkaline ignimbrites 43.1 to 40.1 Ma. Of these, only the andesite and basalt dikes are clearly altered and mineralized. The gold deposits are, therefore, younger than the 40.8 Ma basalt dikes. The sericitic alteration in the andesite dikes is unrelated to the gold deposits. A number of dating techniques did not work. K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dates on mica from mineralized Ordovician to Devonian sedimentary rocks gave misleading results. The youngest date of 149 Ma from the smallest <0.1-)U,m-size fraction shows that the temperature (120°-260°C) and duration (?) of hydrothermal activity was insufficient to reset preexisting fine-grained micas in the host rocks. The temperature and duration was also insufficient to anneal fission tracks in zircon from Ordovician quartzites as they yield Middle Proterozoic dates in both mineralized and barren samples. Apatites were too small for fission track dating. Hydrothermal sulfides have pronounced crustal osmium isotope signatures (18'Os/188Osinitiai = 0.9-3.6) but did not yield a meaningful isochron due to very low Re and Os concentrations and large analytical uncertainties. Paleomagnetic dating techniques failed because the hydrothermal fluids sulfidized nearly all of the iron in the host rocks leaving no remnant magnetism.

Издание:PGS Publishing, Linden Park, 2002 г., 12 стр.
Язык(и)Английский
Alemao copper-gold (U-REE) deposits, Carajas, Brazil

The Alemao copper-gold deposit is located within the Carajas Mineral Province of Northern Brazil and was discovered in 1996 by DOCEGEO using geophysical and geological techniques. Alemao is hosted by the Igarape Bahia Group, which comprises two lithological and stratigraphic domains: a lower metavolcanic unit composed of metavolcanic rocks and acid to intermediate volcanoclastics; and an upper clastic-chemical metasedimentary unit with volcanoclastic rocks. The Alemao ore body is covered by a 250 metres thick unconfonnable siliciclastic unit referred as the Aguas Claras Formation. The ore body, which is 500 metres in length and 50 to 200 metres wide, strikes NE-SW and dips steeply to the NW, being emplaced along the contact between the two stratigraphic domains of the Igarape Bahia Group. In the ore zone, the hydrothermal paragenesis is marked by ferric minerals (magnetite-hematite), sulphides (chalcopyrite, pyrite), chlorite, carbonate (siderite, calcite, ankerite) and biotite, with minor quartz, tourmaline, fluorite, apatite, uraninite, gold and silver. Sericite and albite are rare. The mineralisation is represented by hydrothermal breccias and "hydrothermalites" classified into two types: (1) the BMS type, composed of massive bands of magnetite and chalcopyrite and by polymitic breccias with a matrix comprising magnetite, chalcopyrite, siderite, chlorite, biotite and amphiboles; (2) the BCLS type breccia which comprises brecciated hydrothermalised volcanic rocks with chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, chlorite, siderite, ankerite, tourmaline and molybdenite in the matrix, as well as dissemination in the rock. The geochemical association of Fe-Cu-Au-U-REE in iron rich, heterolithic, hydrothermal breccias at the Alemao Cu-Au Deposit, as well as its possible association with an extensional tectonic setting, suggests a correlation with Olympic Dam type mineralization. The total estimated ore resources based on a krigging method is 170 Mt @ 1.5% Cu and 0.8g/tAu.

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